Astrology Parapsychology

Parapsychology is a research of paranormal and psychological events such as telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, appearance, and other paranormal allegations. parapsychology A large bulk of conventional researchers regard it as pseudoscience.

Parapsychological study in several nations is mainly performed by personal organizations and financed through personal grants, and the topic is rarely covered in conventional scientific publications. In a few niche publications, the majority of articles about parapsychology are released. Parapsychology has been criticized for continued studies, although, after more than a decade of studies, it was not able to provide compelling proof that mental events exist.

Parapsychology study paranormal psychic phenomena including telepathy precognition clairvoyance psychokinesis death experiences synchronicity reincarnation apparitional experiences paranormal claims considered pseudoscience vast majority mainstream scientists Parapsychology conducted private institutions countries funded private donations subject appears mainstream science journals Most papers parapsychology published small number niche journals Parapsychology criticised continuing investigation unable provide convincing evidence existence psychic phenomena century TerminologyThe term parapsychology coined 1889 philosopher Max Dessoir German parapsychologie Rhine 1930s replacement term psychical order shift experimental methodology academic discipline The term originates Greek παρά para meaning psychology parapsychology psi unknown factor extrasensory perception psychokinesis experiences explained physical biological mechanisms The term derived Greek psi 23rd letter Greek alphabet initial letter Greek ψυχή psyche mind soul The term coined biologist Berthold Wiesner psychologist Robert Thouless 1942 article published British Journal Psychology The Parapsychological Association divides psi main categories psi gamma extrasensory perception psi kappa psychokinesis popular culture psi synonymous special psychic mental psionic abilities powers HistoryEarly psychical researchHenry Slade ZöllnerIn 1853 chemist Robert Hare conducted experiments mediums reported positive Other researchers Frank Podmore highlighted flaws experiments lack controls prevent trickery Agenor Gasparin conducted early experiments table tipping Over period months 1853 declared experiments success result ectenic force Critics conditions insufficient prevent trickery For knees sitters employed table experimenter watching table simultaneously The German astrophysicist Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner tested medium Henry Slade 1877 According Zöllner experiments success However flaws experiments discovered critics suggested Slade fraud performed trickery experiments The Society Psychical Research SPR founded London 1882 Its formation systematic effort organize scientists scholars investigate paranormal phenomena Early membership included philosophers scholars scientists educators politicians Henry Sidgwick Arthur Balfour William Crookes Rufus Osgood Mason Nobel Laureate Charles Richet Presidents Society included addition Richet Eleanor Sidgwick William James subsequently Nobel Laureates Henri Bergson Lord Rayleigh philosopher Broad Areas study included telepathy hypnotism Reichenbach phenomena apparitions hauntings physical aspects Spiritualism table tilting materialization apportation 1880s Society investigated apparitional experiences hallucinations sane Among works volume publication 1886 Phantasms Living criticized scholars 1894 Census Hallucinations published sampled 000 people Out persons admitted experienced hallucination apparition The SPR model societies European countries United States late 19th century Early clairvoyance experiments reported 1884 Charles Richet Playing cards enclosed envelopes subject hypnosis attempted identify The subject reported successful series trials dropped chance level performed group scientists Cambridge Peirce Pickering reported experiment tested subjects trials chance scores 1881 Eleanor Sidgwick revealed fraudulent methods spirit photographers Édouard Isidore Buguet Frederic Hudson William Mumlerhad utilized During late nineteenth century fraudulent mediums exposed SPR investigators Largely support psychologist William James American Society Psychical Research ASPR opened doors Boston 1885 moving New York City 1905 leadership James Hyslop Notable cases investigated Walter Franklin Prince ASPR early 20th century included Pierre Keeler Great Amherst Mystery Patience Worth Rhine eraIn 1911 Stanford University academic institution United States study extrasensory perception ESP psychokinesis laboratory setting The effort headed psychologist John Edgar Coover supported funds donated Thomas Welton Stanford brother university founder After conducting 000 experiments Coover concluded statistical treatments data fail reveal chance 1930 Duke University major academic institution engage critical study ESP psychokinesis laboratory Under guidance psychologist William McDougall department including psychologists Karl Zener Joseph Rhine Louisa Rhine laboratory ESP experiments volunteer subjects undergraduate student body began opposed approaches psychical generally sought qualitative evidence paranormal phenomena experiments Duke University proffered quantitative statistical approach cards dice consequence ESP experiments Duke standard laboratory procedures testing ESP developed interested researchers George Estabrooks conducted ESP experiment cards 1927 Harvard students subjects Estabrooks acted sender guesser adjoining room total trials conducted When subjects distant room insulation scores dropped chance level Attempts repeat experiment failed The publication Rhine book New Frontiers Mind 1937 brought laboratory findings general public book Rhine popularized word parapsychology psychologist Max Dessoir coined years earlier conducted Duke Rhine founded autonomous Parapsychology Laboratory Duke started Journal Parapsychology edited McDougall Early parapsychological employed Zener cards experiments designed test existence telepathic communication clairvoyant precognitive perception Rhine associate Karl Zener developed statistical testing ESP involved subjects guessing symbol symbols special deck cards designed purpose percentage correct guesses hits perceived higher chance indicative psychic ability Rhine stated book Extrasensory Perception 1934 000 trials felt ESP actual demonstrable occurrence Irish medium parapsychologist Eileen Garrett tested Rhine Duke University 1933 Zener cards Certain symbols cards sealed envelope asked guess contents She performed criticized tests claiming cards lacked psychic energy called energy stimulus perform clairvoyance order The parapsychologist Samuel Soal colleagues tested Garrett May 1937 Most experiments carried Psychological Laboratory University College London total 000 guesses recorded Garrett failed produce chance level report Soal wrote case Mrs Eileen Garrett fail slightest confirmation Rhine remarkable claims relating alleged powers extra sensory perception Not fail charge experiments failed equally carefully trained experimenters place The parapsychology experiments Duke evoked criticism academics challenged concepts evidence ESP number psychological departments attempted repeat Rhine experiments failure Cox 1936 Princeton University subjects produced 064 trials playing card ESP experiment Cox concluded There evidence extrasensory perception average man group investigated individual group The discrepancy Rhine uncontrollable factors experimental procedure difference subjects Four psychological departments failed replicate Rhine After thousands card runs James Charles Crumbaugh failed duplicate Rhine Hubert Pearce RhineIn 1938 psychologist Joseph Jastrow wrote evidence extrasensory perception collected Rhine parapsychologists anecdotal biased dubious result faulty observation familiar human frailties Rhine experiments discredited discovery sensory leakage cheating account subject read symbols cards hear experimenter note subtle clues Illusionist Milbourne Christopher wrote years felt dozen ways subject wished cheat conditions Rhine deceive investigator When Rhine precautions response criticisms methods unable high scoring subjects Another criticism chemist Irving Langmuir selective reporting Langmuir stated Rhine report scores subjects suspected intentionally guessing wrong felt biased statistical higher Rhine colleagues attempted address criticisms experiments book Extrasensory Perception After Sixty Years 1940 Rhine experiments Pearce Pratt experiment Pratt Woodruff experiment Ownbey Zirkle series believed demonstrated ESP However Hansel wrote experiment contained flaws escaped notice examination authors Extra Sensory Perception After Sixty Years Joseph Gaither Pratt experimenter Pearce Pratt Pratt Woodruff experiments Duke campus Hansel visited campus experiments place discovered originated trick regarded supplying evidence ESP 1957 Rhine Joseph Gaither Pratt wrote Parapsychology Frontier Science Mind Because methodological problems parapsychologists longer utilize card guessing studies Rhine experiments psychokinesis criticized John Sladek wrote His dice subjects fall Not dice drilled shaved falsely numbered manipulated straight dice bias long Casinos reason retire dice Duke subjects continued dice long experimental runs Not surprisingly appeared Duke Zirkle Miss OwnbeyThe Ownbey Zirkle ESP experiment Duke criticized parapsychologists skeptics Ownbey attempt send ESP symbols Zirkle guess The pair adjacent rooms unable electric fan prevent pair communicating sensory cues Ownbey tapped telegraph key Zirkle inform send symbol The door separating rooms open experiment guess Zirkle guess Ownbey recorded choice Critics pointed experiment flawed Ownbey acted sender experimenter controlling experiment Ownbey cheated communicating Zirkle recording mistakes The Turner Ownbey long distance telepathy experiment discovered flaws May Frances Turner positioned Duke Parapsychology Laboratory Sara Ownbey claimed receive transmissions miles For experiment Turner symbol write Ownbey write guesses The scores highly successful records supposed Rhine Ownbey Turner Critics pointed invalidated simply written record agree When experiment repeated records Rhine scores dropped average famous ESP experiment Duke University performed Lucien Warner Mildred Raible The subject locked room switch controlling signal light signal guess card Ten runs ESP packs cards achieved hits chance Weaknesses experiment discovered The duration light signal varied subject specific symbols symbols experiment poor shuffling card manipulation The experiment repeated The administration Duke grew sympathetic parapsychology Rhine retirement 1965 parapsychological links university broken Rhine established Foundation Research Nature Man FRNM Institute Parapsychology successor Duke laboratory 1995 centenary Rhine birth FRNM renamed Rhine Research Center Today Rhine Research Center parapsychology unit stating aims improve human condition creating scientific understanding abilities sensitivities transcend ordinary limits space time Establishment Parapsychological AssociationThe Parapsychological Association created Durham North Carolina June 1957 Its formation proposed Rhine workshop parapsychology held Parapsychology Laboratory Duke University Rhine proposed group form nucleus international professional society parapsychology The aim organization stated Constitution advance parapsychology science disseminate knowledge field integrate findings branches science 1969 direction anthropologist Margaret Mead Parapsychological Association affiliated American Association Advancement Science AAAS largest general scientific society 1979 physicist John Wheeler parapsychology pseudoscientific affiliation AAAS needed reconsidered His challenge parapsychology AAAS affiliation unsuccessful Today consists associate affiliated members worldwide Stargate ProjectBeginning early 1950s CIA started extensive behavioral engineering The findings experiments led formation Stargate Project handled ESP federal government The Stargate Project terminated 1995 conclusion intelligence operation The vague included lot irrelevant erroneous data There reason suspect managers adjusted project reports fit background cues 1970s 1980sThe affiliation Parapsychological Association American Association Advancement Science general openness psychic occult phenomena 1970s led decade increased parapsychological During period organizations formed including Academy Parapsychology Medicine 1970 Institute Parascience 1971 Academy Religion Psychical Research Institute Noetic Sciences 1973 International Kirlian Research Association 1975 Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory 1979 Parapsychological work conducted Stanford Research Institute SRI time The scope parapsychology expanded years Psychiatrist Ian Stevenson conducted reincarnation 1970s edition Twenty Cases Suggestive Reincarnation published 1974 Psychologist Thelma Moss devoted time study Kirlian photography UCLA parapsychology laboratory The influx spiritual teachers Asia claims abilities produced meditation led altered consciousness American Society Psychical Research Director Research Karlis Osis conducted experiments body experiences Physicist Russell Targ coined term remote viewing work SRI 1974 The surge paranormal continued 1980s Parapsychological Association reported members working countries For carried regular conferences held Eastern Europe Soviet Union word parapsychology discarded favour term psychotronics The main promoter psychotronics Czech scientist Zdeněk Rejdák physical science organizing conferences presiding International Association Psychotronic Research 1985 Chair Parapsychology established Department Psychology University Edinburgh Robert Morris experimental parapsychologist United States Morris associates PhD students pursued topics parapsychology Modern eraBernard Carr astronomer time president Society Psychical ResearchSince 1980s contemporary parapsychological waned considerably United States Early considered inconclusive parapsychologists faced strong opposition academic colleagues Some effects thought paranormal effects Kirlian photography thought represent human aura disappeared stringent controls leaving avenues dead ends The bulk parapsychology confined private institutions funded private sources After years Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory PEAR studied psychokinesis closed 2007 Two universities United States academic parapsychology laboratories The Division Perceptual Studies unit University Virginia Department Psychiatric Medicine studies possibility survival consciousness bodily death death experiences body experiences Gary Schwartz University Arizona Veritas Laboratory conducted laboratory investigations mediums criticized scientific skeptics Several private institutions including Institute Noetic Sciences conduct promote parapsychological Over decades sources funding parapsychology Europe substantial increase European parapsychological center gravity field swung United States Europe nations United Kingdom largest number active parapsychologists researchers work conventional psychology departments studies mainstream psychology boost credibility methods sound thought approach account relative strength parapsychology Britain 2007 parapsychology represented countries number universities worldwide continue academic parapsychology programs Among Koestler Parapsychology Unit University Edinburgh Parapsychology Research Group Liverpool Hope University closed April 2011 SOPHIA Project University Arizona Consciousness Transpersonal Psychology Research Unit Liverpool John Moores University Center Study Anomalous Psychological Processes University Northampton Anomalistic Psychology Research Unit Goldsmiths University London Research professional organizations include Parapsychological Association Society Psychical Research publisher Journal Society Psychical Research American Society Psychical Research publisher Journal American Society Psychical Research published 2004 Rhine Research Center Institute Parapsychology publisher Journal Parapsychology Parapsychology Foundation published International Journal Parapsychology 1959 1968 2000 2001 Australian Institute Parapsychological Research publisher Australian Journal Parapsychology The European Journal Parapsychology ceased publishing 2010 Parapsychological included disciplines psychology These fields include transpersonal psychology studies transcendent spiritual aspects human mind anomalistic psychology examines paranormal beliefs subjective anomalous experiences traditional psychological terms ResearchScopeParapsychologists study number ostensible paranormal phenomena including limited Telepathy Transfer thoughts feelings individuals classical senses Precognition Perception future places events occur Clairvoyance Obtaining places events remote locations unknown current science Psychokinesis The ability mind influence matter time space energy unknown current science Near death experiences experience reported person died experienced clinical death revived Reincarnation The rebirth soul physical aspect human consciousness physical body death Apparitional experiences Phenomena attributed ghosts encountered places deceased individual thought frequented association person belongings The definitions terms reflect mainstream usage opinions parapsychologists critics According Parapsychological Association parapsychologists study paranormal phenomena concerned astrology UFOs cryptozoology paganism vampires alchemy witchcraft Journals dealing parapsychology include Journal Parapsychology Journal Near Death Studies Journal Consciousness Studies Journal Society Psychical Research Journal Scientific Exploration Experimental researchThe Ganzfeld German field technique test individuals telepathy The technique form moderate sensory deprivation developed quiet mental noise providing mild unpatterned stimuli visual auditory senses The visual sense isolated creating soft red glow diffused ping pong ballsplaced recipient eyes The auditory sense blocked playing white noise static sounds recipient The subject seated reclined comfortable position minimize sense touch typical Ganzfeld experiment sender receiver isolated The receiver Ganzfeld Ganzfeld sender video clip picture asked mentally send image receiver The receiver Ganzfeld asked continuously speak aloud mental processes including images thoughts feelings sending period typically minutes length receiver Ganzfeld images videos true target target decoys The receiver attempts select true target perceptions experienced Ganzfeld clues mentally image Participant Ganzfeld experiment Proponents experiments evidence telepathy critics Ray Hyman pointed independently replicated The Ganzfeld experiment studies examined Ray Hyman Charles Honorton methodological problems documented Honorton reported studies duplicate target sets pictures avoid handling cues Hyman discovered flaws Ganzfeld experiments assess experiment devised set categories flaws Six concerned statistical defects covered procedural flaws inadequate documentation randomization security possibilities sensory leakage Over studies failed safeguard sensory leakage studies contained flaws Because flaws Honorton agreed Hyman Ganzfeld studies support claim existence psi Possibilities sensory leakage Ganzfeld experiments included receivers hearing sender room door rooms soundproof sender fingerprints visible target object receiver Hyman reviewed autoganzfeld experiments discovered pattern data implied visual cue place Hyman wrote autoganzfeld experiments flawed preclude possibility sensory leakage 2010 Lance Storm Patrizio Tressoldi Lorenzo Risio analyzed Ganzfeld studies 1997 2008 trials produced hits hit rate This hit rate statistically 001 Participants selected personality traits personal characteristics thought psi conducive perform unselected participants Ganzfeld condition Hyman 2010 published rebuttal Storm According Hyman Reliance meta analysis sole basis justifying claim anomaly exists evidence consistent replicable fallacious distorts scientists confirmatory evidence Hyman wrote Ganzfeld studies independently replicated failed produce evidence psi Storm published response Hyman stating Ganzfeld experimental design proved consistent reliable parapsychology struggling discipline received attention subject Rouder 2013 wrote critical evaluation Storm meta analysis reveals evidence psi plausible mechanism replication failures Remote viewingRussell Targ founder Stargate ProjectRemote viewing practice seeking impressions distant unseen target subjective extrasensory perception Typically remote viewer expected object event person location hidden physical view separated distance Several trials conducted investigators years including Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory PEAR scientists SRI International Science Applications International Corporation Many contract government espionage program Stargate Project terminated 1995 failed document practical intelligence The psychologists David Marks Richard Kammann attempted replicate Russell Targ Harold Puthoff remote viewing experiments carried 1970s Stanford Research Institute series studies unable replicate motivating investigate procedure original experiments Marks Kammann discovered notes judges Targ Puthoff experiments contained clues order carried referring yesterday targets session written They concluded clues reason experiment high hit rates Marks achieve cent accuracy visiting sites cues James Randi wrote controlled tests collaboration researchers eliminating sources cuing extraneous evidence original tests Randi controlled tests produced negative Students solve Puthoff Targ locations cues inadvertently included transcripts 1980 Charles Tart claimed rejudging transcripts Targ Puthoff experiments revealed chance result Targ Puthoff refused provide copies transcripts July 1985 study discovered contained sensory cues Marks Christopher Scott 1986 wrote remote viewing hypothesis adequate cue removal Tart failure perform basic task comprehension concluded remote viewing demonstrated experiments conducted Puthoff Targ repeated failure investigators remove sensory cues PEAR closed doors February 2007 Its founder Robert Jahn For years wanted reason stay generate data Statistical flaws work proposed parapsychological community general scientific community The physicist Robert Park PEAR embarrassment science embarrassment Princeton Psychokinesis random number generatorsMain article PsychokinesisThe advent powerful inexpensive electronic technologies allowed development fully automated experiments studying interactions mind matter common experiment type random number generator RNG based electronic radioactive noise produces data stream recorded analyzed software subject attempts mentally alter distribution random numbers experimental design functionally equivalent heads tails flipping coin RNG experiment design flexibility combined rigorous controls collecting large data short period time This technique test individuals psychokinesis test influence RNGs large groups people Major meta analyses RNG database published years appearing journal Foundations Physics 1986 PEAR founder Robert Jahn colleague Brenda Dunne experiments produced small large observed experiment large number trials tiny statistical deviation chance According Massimo Pigliucci PEAR explained invoking paranormal problems experiment difficulty designing machines capable generating random events fact statistical significance good measure genuineness phenomenon Pigluicci written statistical analysis Jahn PEAR group relied quantity called problem values sample size number trials large PEAR guaranteed artificially values indicating statistical result occurring small biases experimental apparatus Two German independent scientific groups failed replicate PEAR Pigliucci written indication simplest hypothesis true replicate The meta analysis psychokinesis published Psychological Bulletin critical commentaries analyzed studies authors reported positive size statistically small relative sample size principle explained publication bias Direct mental interactions living systemsFormerly called bio direct mental interactions living systems DMILS studies effects person intentions distant person psychophysiological One type DMILS experiment commonly reported feeling stared The starer staree isolated locations starer periodically asked simply gaze staree closed circuit video links Meanwhile staree nervous activity automatically continuously monitored Parapsychologists interpreted cumulative data DMILS experiments person attention directed remote isolated person activate calm person nervous meta analysis experiments published British Journal Psychology 2004 researchers small DMILS However study small number highest quality studies laboratory analyzed size The authors concluded existence anomaly distant intentions ruled shortage independent replications theoretical concepts Dream telepathyMain article Dream telepathyParapsychological studies dream telepathy carried Maimonides Medical Center Brooklyn New York led Stanley Krippner Montague Ullman They concluded experiments supported dream telepathy However independently replicated The picture target experiments conducted Krippner Ullman criticized Hansel According Hansel weaknesses design experiments agent aware target picture Only agent target person judging targets completed experimenter agent target envelope opened Hansel wrote poor controls experiment main experimenter communicate subject 2002 Krippner denied Hansel accusations claiming agent communicate experimenter attempt replicate experiments picture targets carried Edward Belvedere David Foulkes The finding subject judges matched targets dreams chance level Results experiments Belvedere Foulkes negative 2003 Simon Sherwood Chris Roe wrote review claimed support dream telepathy Maimonides However James Alcock review based extreme messiness data Alcock concluded dream telepathy experiments Maimonides failed provide evidence telepathy lack replication rampant Near death experiencesMain article Near death experienceAscent Blessed Hieronymus Bosch 1490 depicts tunnel light spiritual figures reported death experiencers death experience NDE experience reported person died experienced clinical death revived NDEs include experiences sense dead body experience sensation floating body surrounding area sense overwhelming love peace sensation moving tunnel narrow passageway meeting deceased relatives spiritual figures encountering light light experiencing life review reaching border boundary feeling returned body accompanied reluctance Interest NDE originally spurred psychiatrists Elisabeth Kübler Ross George Ritchie Raymond Moody 1975 Moody wrote selling book Life After Life 1977 wrote book Reflections Life After Life 1998 Moody appointed chair consciousness studies University Nevada Las Vegas The International Association Near death Studies IANDS founded 1978 meet early researchers experiencers field Later researchers psychiatrist Bruce Greyson psychologist Kenneth Ring cardiologist Michael Sabom introduced study death experiences academic setting Reincarnation researchMain article Reincarnation researchPsychiatrist Ian Stevenson University Virginia conducted case studies period years published books wrote childhood memories ostensibly reincarnation occurred ages years fade shortly compared memories reports people deceased attempting contact child deceased family occurred searched disconfirming evidence provide alternative explanations reports reincarnation Some cent subjects examined Stevenson birthmarks birth defects Stevenson believed existence birth marks deformities children occurred location fatal wounds deceased evidence reincarnation However Stevenson claimed proved existence reincarnation cautiously referred cases reincarnation type suggestive reincarnation Researchers evidence reincarnation unsuccessful scientific community possibility Ian Wilson argued large number Stevenson cases consisted poor children remembering wealthy lives belonging higher caste speculated cases represent scheme money family alleged incarnation Philosopher Keith Augustine written vast majority Stevenson cases countries religious belief reincarnation strong rarely cultural conditioning reincarnation generates claims spontaneous life memories According Robert Baker alleged life experiences investigated Stevenson parapsychologists explained terms psychological factors Baker written recalling lives mixture cryptomnesia confabulation Philosopher Paul Edwards reincarnation invokes assumptions inconsistent modern science Scientific receptionJames Alcock notable critic parapsychology EvaluationThe scientific consensus insufficient evidence support existence psi phenomena Scientists critical parapsychology extraordinary claims demand extraordinary evidence Scientists evaluated parapsychology written entire body evidence poor quality adequately controlled support view critics cite instances fraud flawed studies cognitive biases clustering illusion availability error confirmation bias illusion control magical thinking bias blind spot ways explain parapsychological Research people desire paranormal phenomena discount strong evidence exist The psychologists Donovan Rawcliffe 1952 Hansel 1980 Ray Hyman 1989 Andrew Neher 2011 studied history psi experiments late 19th century 1980s experiment investigated flaws weaknesses discovered possibility sensory leakage trickery ruled The data Creery sister Soal Goldney experiments proven fraudulent subjects Smith Blackburn experiments confessed fraud Brugmans experiment experiments John Edgar Coover conducted Joseph Gaither Pratt Helmut Schmidt flaws design experiments rule possibility sensory cues trickery replicated According critics psi negatively defined explained terms chance normal fallacy encourages parapsychologists peculiarity data characteristic psi Parapsychologists admitted impossible eliminate possibility paranormal experiments There independent method presence absence psi Persi Diaconis written controls parapsychological experiments loose possibilities subject cheating unconscious sensory cues The existence parapsychological phenomena scientific validity parapsychological disputed independent evaluators researchers 1988 National Academy Sciences published report subject concluded scientific justification conducted period years existence parapsychological phenomena accepted theory parapsychology exists competing conflicting models advocated parapsychologists attempt explain reported paranormal phenomena Terence Hines book Pseudoscience Paranormal 2003 wrote Many theories proposed parapsychologists explain psi takes place skeptics theory building premature phenomena explained theories demonstrated convincingly Skeptics Antony Flew cited lack theory reason rejecting parapsychology 1998 physics professor Michael Friedlander parapsychology failed produce clear evidence existence anomalous effects require region science Philosopher skeptic Robert Todd Carroll written parapsychology characterized deception fraud incompetence setting properly controlled experiments evaluating statistical data The psychologist Ray Hyman pointed parapsychologists Dick Bierman Walter Lucadou Kennedy Robert Jahn admitted evidence psi inconsistent irreproducible fails meet acceptable scientific standards Richard Wiseman criticized parapsychological community widespread errors methods including cherry picking procedures produce preferred explaining unsuccessful attempted replications claims experimenter data mining retrospective data selection review parapsychological reports Hyman wrote randomization inadequate multiple statistical testing adjustment significance levels prevalent possibilities sensory leakage uniformly prevented errors statistical tests common documentation typically inadequate Parapsychology criticized making precise predictions Ray Hyman standing Lee Ross Daryl Bem Victor Benassi 1983 CSICOP Conference Buffalo New YorkIn 2003 James Alcock Professor Psychology York University published Give Null Hypothesis Chance Reasons Remain Doubtful Existence Psi claimed parapsychologists possibility psi exist Because interpret null indicating unable observe psi experiment support possibility psi The failure null hypothesis alternative psi hypotheses leads rely number arbitrary effects excuse failures predicted effects excuse lack consistency outcomes excuse failures replicate Basic endemic problems parapsychological include insufficient definition subject matter total reliance negative definitions phenomena psi occur normal influences ruled failure produce single phenomenon independently replicated neutral researchers effects psi experimenter explain inconsistencies data failures achieve predicted outcomes unfalsifiability claims unpredictability effects lack progress century formal methodological weaknesses reliance statistical procedures determine psi supposedly occurred statistical analysis justify claim psi occurred failure jibe areas science Overall argues parapsychological lead parapsychologists conclude psi exist search continue long time continue parapsychology motivated belief search data data search explanation Richard Land written human biology highly evolution humans ESP recognized senses adequate evolution survival species Michael Shermer article Psychic Drift Why scientists ESP psi phenomena Scientific American wrote reason skepticism replicable data viable theory missing psi January 2008 study neuroimaging published provide purported favorable experimental conditions study included emotional stimuli participants biologically emotionally twins The experiment designed produce positive telepathy clairvoyance precognition occurred distinguishable neuronal responses psychic stimuli psychic stimuli variations stimuli anticipated effects patterns brain activation The researchers concluded These findings strongest evidence existence paranormal mental phenomena Other studies attempted test psi hypothesis functional neuroimaging neuroscience review studies Acunzo 2013 discovered methodological weaknesses account reported psi effects 2014 study discovered schizophrenic patients belief psi healthy adults Some researchers skeptical parapsychology Susan Blackmore John Taylor years study progress demonstrating existence psi scientific method PhysicsThe ideas psi precognition psychokinesis telepathy violate established laws physics Psychokinesis violates inverse square law law thermodynamics conservation momentum There mechanism psi subject psychokinesis physicist Sean Carroll written human brains spoons bend matter quarks leptons emerges properties behavior quarks leptons And quarks leptons interact forces strong weak electromagnetic gravitational Thus forces force force range millimetre billionth strength gravity captured experiments This leaves physical force account psychokinesis Physicist John Taylor investigated parapsychological claims written unknown force causing psychokinesis transmit great deal energy The energy overcome electromagnetic forces binding atoms The atoms respond force operative electric forces Such additional force atoms exist time alleged paranormal occurrences Taylor wrote scientific trace force physics orders magnitude scientific viewpoint preserved idea force discarded Taylor concluded physical mechanism psychokinesis complete contradiction established science Felix Planer professor electrical engineering written psychokinesis real easy demonstrate subjects depress scale sensitive balance raise temperature water bath measured accuracy hundredth degree Celsius affect element electrical circuit resistor monitored millionth ampere Planer writes experiments extremely sensitive easy monitor utilized parapsychologists hold remotest hope demonstrating minute trace alleged phenomenon existent Planer written parapsychologists fall studies involve statistics unrepeatable poor experimental methods recording mistakes faulty statistical mathematics According Planer medicine sciences illusionary existence experiment relied furnish objective measurements falsified greater lesser degree ability experimenter wishes Planer concluded concept psychokinesis absurd scientific basis Philosopher physicist Mario Bunge written psychokinesis violates principle mind matter experimenter trust readings measuring instruments violates principles conservation energy momentum The claim quantum mechanics possibility mental power influencing randomizers alleged case micro ludicrous theory respects conservation principles deals exclusively physical The physicist Robert Park questioned mind influence matter easy parapsychologists measure phenomenon alleged psychokinetic power deflect microbalance require dubious statistics reason microbalance stubbornly refuses budge Park suggested reason statistical studies popular parapsychology introduce opportunities uncertainty error support biases experimenter Park wrote proof psychic phenomena spite tests devised parapsychologists Jahn Radin huge amounts data collected period years convincing today began experiments Selection bias meta analysisSelective reporting offered critics explanation positive reported parapsychologists Selective reporting referred file drawer problem arises positive study public studies negative null public Selective reporting compounded meta analysis statistical technique aggregates studies order generate sufficient statistical power demonstrate result individual studies demonstrate statistically level For meta analysis combined studies psychokinesis including data PEAR lab concluded statistically consistent negative studies cancel Consequently biased publication positive The popularity meta analysis parapsychology criticized numerous researchers troublesome parapsychology Critics parapsychologists misuse meta analysis create incorrect impression statistically existence psi phenomena Physicist Robert Park parapsychology reported positive problematic findings invariably margin statistical significance explained number confounding effects Park marginal typical symptom pathological science Irving Langmuir Researcher Kennedy concerns meta analysis science medicine apply problems parapsychological meta analysis post hoc analysis critics emphasize opportunity method presents produce biased outcomes selection cases chosen study methods employed key criteria Critics analogous problems meta analysis documented medicine investigators performing meta analyses set studies reached contradictory conclusions Anomalistic psychologyMain article Anomalistic psychologyIn anomalistic psychology paranormal phenomena naturalistic explanations psychological physical factors impression paranormal activity people fact According psychologist Chris French The difference anomalistic psychology parapsychology terms aims discipline Parapsychologists typically searching evidence prove reality paranormal forces prove exist starting assumption paranormal happen anomalistic psychologists tend start position paranormal forces exist kinds explanations psychological explanations experiences people typically label paranormal Whilst parapsychology decline anomalistic psychology reported rise offered option psychology degree programmes 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