Horoscopic Astrology

These abstracts are the best thing to do. The subjects examined by astrologers and others, the vast work engaged, the findings that were inevitably incompatible with astrological allegations, and the then intense science concern in astrology, which will most probably never again come to light in perspective of the adverse findings, are shown here.

Due to the introduction of private devices in early 1970, which eliminated the obstacle to calculation and in 197 77 the publishing in Natal Astrology of Recent Advances, scientific studies into astrology became common. The AinO, Correlation and APP journals, which then headed the sector, were published within five years. But not everything was good. Astrological allegations were inevitably incomprehensible and investment has steadily decreased since the 1990s, see below chart. The period will most probably never again have an intensive science stake in astrology.

Horoscopic Astrology These abstracts The subjects examined astrologers vast work engaged findings inevitably incompatible astrological allegations intense science concern astrology light perspective adverse findings Due introduction private devices early 1970 eliminated obstacle calculation publishing Natal Astrology Recent Advances scientific studies astrology common The AinO Correlation APP journals headed sector published years But good Astrological allegations inevitably incomprehensible investment steadily decreased 1990s chart The period intensive science stake astrology Abstract Contains abstracts studies empirical astrological journals There abstracts Correlation Journal Research Astrology 1981 2007 published British Astrological Association defunctAstro Psychological Problems 1982 1995 published Francoise Gauquelin France 1989 1990 National Council Geocosmic Research USA Astrologie Onderzoek Astrology Scrutiny 1986 2003 published Wout Heukelom Netherlands including precursors 1977 1985 published NVWOA Dutch Society Scientific Research Astrology Kosmos 1978 1994 published ISAR USA based International Society Astrological Research time journals peer review astrological journals devoted scientific Kosmos astrological journal scientific journal abstracts The abstracts comprehensive averaging range 950 annotated Most 1980 2000 scientific astrology peak There figures The areas covered Character abstracts extraversion harmonics marriage murder Pluto redheads terrorism Events abstracts accidents death elections Moon planting radio rain wars weather Signs abstracts Age guessing patterns ray theory attribution sidereal Aspects abstracts graphs uniform occurrence occurrence eminent people validity Houses abstracts covering house division rulerships tests validity Gauquelin abstracts interpretation replication unsolved problems 8000 tests Tests astrologers abstracts case histories death extraversion picking reading Approaches abstracts computers internet judgement bias science These abstracts They illustrate topics investigated astrologers immense labour involved invariably incommensurate astrological claims intense scientific astrology view negative The abstracts limited journals Correlation APP AinO Kosmos cover reported orthodox journals astrological journals French Les Cahiers RAMS founded 1993 abstracts English ramsfr org American Federation Astrologers Journal Research founded 1982 1995 volumes published Nevertheless illustrate wide range topics investigated astrologers Overviews studies abstracted relevant Sun sign attribution tests astrologers clients lunar effects Gauquelin tests signs aspects planets Meta analyses website Doing Scientific Research Within category abstracts order Where original abstracts inadequate existent expanded considerably Average length range 950 Occasional notes provide relevant failure replicate The source material picture Source material Top APP 1982 1995 including APP NCGR AinO precursors 1977 2003 Bottom Correlation 1981 2007 Kosmos 1978 1995 Altogether Correlation APP AinO Kosmos occupying shelf space Rise fall researchScientific astrology popular 1980s advent personal computers late 1970s removed calculation barrier publication 1977 Recent Advances Natal Astrology fully referenced critical review empirical findings Within years peer review journals AinO Correlation APP subsequently led field But Results invariably incommensurate astrological claims 1990s slowly declined plot The period intense scientific astrology Combined word counts peer review journals plotted years Total Correlation APP AinO precursors Some decrease 1996 2000 demise APP 1995 Astrology Character abstracts Signs Research Astrological Factors Between Married CouplesThomas Shanks APP 1983 Reprinted Kosmos 1985 wrongly attributed Marie Scheider 1952 Carl Jung compared astrological factors married couples divided groups There tendency favour Moon conjunct Moon agreement tradition replicate underlying statistics assumed uniform distributions inadequate The author repeated Jung experiment 960 married couples chosen random Gauquelin heredity experiment compared observed frequencies conjunctions oppositions orb degrees pairings Sun Moon Ascendant couples sets randomised pairings According tradition factors prominent married couples But reached prominence Jung marginally There uniform distribution significance levels entire range precisely expected astrological effects Conclusion frequency factors differ married couples unmarried randomly matched couples Computer Study RelationshipsGail Guttman Kosmos 1985 Relationship astrology tested long term couples short term couples lasting years program tallied planets asteroids angles Ascendant Anti vertex East Point aspects multiples degrees orb degrees making total 3360 factors The couples mixed rematched form control group decreasing order statistical significance male female contacts long term couples Moon Moon south node East Point Ascendant Chiron Saturn Moon Moon true north node Pluto Ascendant Pluto Ascendant Juno For short term couples Moon south node Uranus Pluto Chiron Mars Ceres Vesta Jupiter Antivertex Chiron Pluto Neptune East Point contacts replicated groups traditional contacts Sun Moon Venus Mars absent Obviously study The calculation significance unclear Since bizarre contacts replicated predicted advance testing provide evidence astrological effects relationships All concluded list ranked data random data Sixty Eight Birth Charts TerroristsLuigi Squitieri APP 1985 Definite statistical conclusions drawn study cases But author clear starting hypotheses frequency Cancer 4th house high frequency 11th 12th houses angular Mars Uranus Neptune contradicted outcomes cases change conclusions tradition confirmed case terrorism Includes birth data Can Astrology Predict Individual factorsGeoffrey Dean Correlation 1985 test astrology predict extraversion emotionality ordinary people subjects extreme scores Eysenck Personality Inventory EPI selected 1198 subjects southern hemisphere birth times The result replicate sets extreme subjects The average pair extremes roughly equivalent extreme persons random sample adults The factors tested tropical signs decans elements sidereal signs aspects harmonics hemisphere Gauquelin zones angularity individually combination The excluded sidereal signs included midpoints Placidus houses astrology predicts factor frequency higher extreme subjects extreme subjects The tests multiple discriminant analysis factor performed consistently chance level The Meaning Pluto Part Experiment primary analysisTerry Dwyer Correlation 1987 sample mixed adults completed item questionnaire addressed Pluto meanings intensification exaggeration social power transformation suppression Answers point scale disagree agree comparison natal charts divided relevant Pluto aspects evidence support meanings Combining hard aspects soft close aspects wide weighting aspect strength produced improvement The suggestive meaningful trend deny Pluto meanings t4sted The Meaning Pluto Part Further analyses Dwyer dataGeoffrey Dean Rudolf Smit Correlation 1987 Dwyer study mere handful attempts history astrology investigate planetary meaning direct experiment Despite negative sample size sufficient detect Pluto Pluto real meanings addressed questionnaire hand negative arose single questions generally poor measures supposed measure remedied adding answers questions relate Our analysis puts point test Factor analysis correlations responses Dwyer questions revealed underlying themes Power intense achieve Suppression reserved hide feelings Transformation prone upheavals The themes based questions correlated compared Pluto strength measured ways strength aspect weighted planet orb aspects multiples degrees strength Pluto angularity based orb measure multiplying approximates astrologer interpreting chart The number correlations theme Pluto strength close expected chance aspect multiple Approach improvement charts birth times Results random numbers good astrology There hint Pluto aspect angularity Power Suppression Transformation Our improved approach adequate detect worthwhile confirmed Dwyer negative findings hope offer data programs free charge interested During years takers More Uranus MurderersLorna Houston Francoise Gauquelin Arno Muller Mike Neill APP 1988 Lorna Houston frequency Uranus retrograde positions birth charts murderers APP checks sample murderers result replicable Her result direction confirm outcome Two readers APP Muller Neill university professor astronomical demographic effects explain outcomes This investigated Follow checks original data appeared APP NCGR 1989 Pottenger Muller Neill demographic effects proved strong clear conclusion Inexplicably accompanying study Lorna Houston sample murderers Canadian Centre Justice Statistics report occurrence retrograde Uranus Mercury stationsFrank Jakubowsky Kosmos 1994 Mercury retrograde bad reputation astrologers held weakness confusion areas ruled Mercury test idea entries inWho Who Writers Editors Poets 1986 1987 birth dates 1900 1949 analysed total 4997 births Mercury retrograde including subsequent station 1000 births 955 expected surplus contrary reputation natal retrograde Mercury advantage writers However distribution births uneven year period theoretical expectancies wrong The study replicated chi squared test surplus The Mars Redhead DilemmaNick Kollerstrom Correlation 1997 early study redheads tend born Mars degrees natal ascendant chance level Did Mars redhead replicate Much controversy generated highly original project coordinated Hill Thompson USA The initial pilot study gathered March 1987 July year redheads gathered test hypothesis More gathered USA Canada redheads addition redheads gathered long John Addey birth data lost Mars equal house frequencies remain The called beginner luck percentage excess Mars key sectors decreasing subsequent sample There suggestion Mars setting deficit replication John Addey Dream Planetary Harmonics Character TraitsGeoffrey Dean Correlation 1997 According John Addey harmonic analysis Gauquelin trait data reveals existence planetary harmonics diurnal circle simple emphasis key sectors For Mars moves diurnal circle circle sectors 3rd harmonic interval consecutive sectors 4th harmonic interval consecutive sectors Comparison Gauquelin trait data sports champions born Mars 3rd harmonic intervals tended modest born Mars 4th harmonic intervals tended aggressive Higher harmonics meaningful sports champions born Mars 15th harmonic intervals tended steadfast Such central Addey dream unified astrology based harmonics Earlier findings convinced Astrology Reborn 1971 famous quote future astrology From outcast fraternity science destined assume central role scientific thought impact felt years But Addey data procedures problematic First trait data extracted blind bias Gauquelin knowledge planetary positions extraction process Second Gauquelin statistical tests faulty based number traits based number subjects leading conclusions led astray Third samples small samples Gauquelin extracted trait data original large samples births sampling requirements harmonic analysis stringent types analysis simulations Addey sample sizes small meaningful That sampling errors sectors Addey extracting harmonics high harmonics original population analysis simulated Addey sample births analysing distribution harmonics contained samples size correct answer advance The figure correlation synthetic populations harmonics equal amplitude random phase angles samples sizes picked random distributed sectors The correlation measure sample adequacy harmonic analysis exceed meaningful Each point 000 replications The correlations population sample attained Addey sample sizes median negligible showing sampling errors Addey samples population meaningful harmonic analysis number sectors reduced sampling errors sector reduced increases correlations dotted Approximately increase harmonics extracted reduced Other weaknesses ineffective criteria selecting amplitudes led amplitudes noise accepted meaningful independence traits sector bias created spurious odd numbered harmonics incorrect expectancies uniform expectancies subjective follow Collectively weaknesses fatal Despite Addey inspiring vision astonishing labour attributed artifacts rest Gauquelin bias trait extraction The sad safest conclusion planetary harmonics exist emphasis key sectors The procedural weaknesses apply Addey harmonic work general leaves harmonic theory astrology secure basis His dream remains dream Meaningful Coincidences Parallels Phrenology AstrologyGeoffrey Dean Correlation 1998 Phrenology reading character brain development head shape effectively dead 1830s popular astrology today The story phrenology rich lessons astrology But literature huge clogged issues philosophy politics religion morality society general tedious read wordiness style day difficult specialised libraries lessons unrecognised Like astrology phrenology encourages assess findings achieve harmony Like astrology flourished practitioners clients worked claimed plainly demonstrated acceptance phrenology impossible But experience based claims phrenologists completely wrong head shape supposed underlying philosophy thyself undeniable appeal Millions people unaware ways judgements led astray seduced phrenology appeal believing untruths Could apply experience based claims astrologers answer question phrenology social context history literature testimonials stock objections experimental tests parallels astrology Until astrologers demonstrate answer Whether price paid believing untruths worth satisfaction brings including keeping people worse mischiefs topic ponder Astrology Events abstracts Signs Lunar Sidereal Rhythm Crop Yield PhasingNicholas Kollerstrom Correlation 1981 All Moon gardening calendars agree kind Moon sign time sowing maximising yield agree zodiac tropical sidereal zodiac signs produce Here experimental work examine possibilities The crop yields Moon position sowing experiments performed Colin Bishop Wales 1976 1977 1978 day sidereal rhythms wave harmonic approach rhythms years sowing data lettuce maximum yield occurred sidereal Water signs radish maximum yield occurred sidereal Earth signs increase yield Moon phase The criticised account consistent small yields poor soil drought conditions hoped experiments performed conditions Bradley Jupiter Pluvius Rainfall StudyColin James III Correlation 1981 One Jupiter classical names Jupiter Pluvius Jupiter Rainmaker late 1950s astrologer Donald Bradley 1925 1974 heavy rainfall tended occur Jupiter conjunct square local meridian moment Moon entry sidereal Capricorn prior rainfall Bradley suggested supported Jupiter Pluvius sidereal zodiac Other work John Nelson radio disturbance abstract Bradley study hard geophysical support astrological theory Previously unpublished data aided analysis Bradley Jupiter rainfall study Bradley findings spurious Moon sidereal period commensurable Earth rotation The average time Moon successive entries sidereal Capricorn days time Earth rotates circles degrees Jupiter moves degrees The difference close degrees compounded Bradley wide moving total explains findings Consequently provide support connection Jupiter rainfall existence sidereal effects Shortwave Radio Propagation Analysis Forecasts John NelsonGeoffrey Dean Correlation 1983 This study examines Nelson claims heliocentric planetary aspects correlate shortwave radio quality hard aspects worse improve accuracy forecasts Computer analysis 2006 day quarter day quality forecasts based planetary positions Nelson RCA 1964 4960 daily forecasts Magazine 1966 failed support claims There correlation forecast outcome outcome days forecast poor days forecast good Nelson forecasts performed considerably worse Government forecasts control forecast based quality solar rotation The accuracy forecasts solar flares chance increase sensitivity analysis daily planetary based Nelson rules compared observed radio qualities geomagnetic indices planetary detectable alleged nodes perihelia disagreement Nelson claims hard aspects harmonic aspects consistently numerous disturbed days 1969 disturbed days days adverse planetary configurations years adverse Nelson claims incompatible physical processes involved rest statistical artifact close unequal spacing aspect days small differences radio days large differences calculation artifact counting forecasts hits unit observed quality observed qualities fall range unit hit rate claimed accuracy rate unremarkable Selection data fit case The deny planets affect Sun ways Planetary Motions Occurrence EarthquakesScott Vail Kosmos 1985 Charts largest earthquake disasters support conceivable astrological factor alike obvious statistical methods The charts major earthquakes magnitude 1930 1980 revealed sign house aspect preferences Saturn tended cluster cases expected heliocentric planetary pairs excluding Uranus Pluto applying closer exactness multiple degree aspects orb degrees expected assuming uniform planetary motion separating aspects expected These analyses subjected statistical tests controls tentative case earthquakes occur hypotheses framed advance illustrate event selection possibilities Election Government Ministries Jupiter TransitsGrazia Bordoni Ciro Discepolo Vincent Grilli APP 1986 Statistical investigation elections politicians Italian Government carefully conducted group astrologers South Italy Bias avoided representatives successive governments Italian Republic creation study The hypothesis consistent tradition transits conjunctions trines Jupiter natal Sun Moon Ascendant day election control sample subjects election dates randomly generated years actual election The average frequency Jupiter transits higher experimental group difference test planned test transits Venus Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto disappointing Jupiter traditionally relevant planet encourage They require work Transits Abduction ChildrenDavid Peter Valentiner 1987 APP The author notes empirical studies transits generally negative For Ulrich Mees APP examined Sun Moon transits including harmonic aspects natal Sun Moon 3045 deaths Nevertheless transits hold prominent place astrology author attempts conclusion examining hard transits conjunction square opposition orb degree Mars Saturn cases child abduction supplied National Center Missing Exploited Children According textbooks Mars Saturn symbolism consistent abduction For 1976 book Saturn New Look Old Devil Liz Greene Actual physical maltreatment childhood occurs Mars Saturn aspects The hypothesis Mars Saturn Saturn Mars transits frequently expected charts children day Expected frequencies calculated mixing birth abduction records The observed total occurrences higher expected total occurrences The remaining abductions occurred transit The transit Mars conjunct Saturn marginally Conclusion hypothesis supported Alternative explanations astronomical biasses chance fluctuations safely dismissed Traffic Accident Victims Pluto squaresFrancoise Gauquelin APP 1988 1985 APP article Kuypers studied sample traffic accident victimes general excess squares keeping tradition Ascendant Pluto squares orb degrees expected But cases astrological literature selective publication favour tradition normal introducing positive bias check sample traffic accident victims newspapers general excess squares Ascendant Pluto high expected computerised check expectancies reduced observed significance Kuypers argue Ascendant Pluto squares held promise But skeptic failure squares replicable precarious significance outcome convincing power accidents squares natal chart connection Horary Astrology UnreliableMartin Boot AinO 1989 AinO author applied precise textbook rules precise predictions horary astrology AinO Corry Sietsma argued Boot mistaken She reads charts exact events question article Sietsma reasoning rebutted She correctly applying rules horary astrology read likes charts Thus Sietsma joins multitude astrologers fit chart event For follow 1996 abstract Tests Astrologers Planetary Aspects Violent DeathsGeert Thomassen van Roekel AinO 1990 critique Bert Terpstra AinO 1991 This abstract combines Thomassen collected birth death dates newspapers graveyards persons died violent death traffic accident Van Roekel counted aspects natal noon transitting death planets Moon Harmonious aspects defined degrees inharmonious degrees Tradition swap allocation based earlier equalise expected aspect numbers The total number observed aspects Orb1291 1285 1279 Inharmonious aspects1170 1265 1243 Harmonious aspects DifferenceThe differences small direction However contrary tradition numbers decrease increasing orb outer planets Jupiter Pluto Conclusion outcome unclear small The study repeated clearer hypotheses easy collect sample short term 1500 cases deathGeert Thomassen van Roekel AinO 1991 Thomassen visited cemeteries recorded total 1500 birth dates death dates Van Roekel counted aspects previous abstract According tradition inharmonious aspects death harmonious aspects For replicate groups transitting planets Jupiter Pluto clear The rest Sun Mercury Venus Mars small excess harmonious inharmonious aspects average direction predicted omitting Jupiter Pluto inflated The counts counts control groups birth dates random death dates average Increasing orb degrees affect outcome Conclusion contrary traditional claims correlation transits death Birth Time ReconstructionBert Terpstra AinO 1992 1991 1990 1990 This study chart rectification author expert programmer years complete perhape meticulous conducted articles author describes computerised method reconstructing correct birth time based traditional claim event life occurs progression involving chart angle Ascendant force time hard imagine newly born child record movement planets angles hours birth replay external events Nevertheless progressions work implications tremendous requiring acceptance analogy active principle pose huge challenge science Not primary secondary progressions birth time reconstruction coincide event birth time This true primary progressions angles natal planets secondary progressions planets natal angles The starting point subject birth chart birth times intervals minutes quarter hour nominal birth time number major events accidents For event birth time natal planets angles progressed rate tested day year life exact aspect angles calculated birthtime Contacts angles counted Within minute interval number hits aspects event counted hit aspect involve angle Ascendant physical events accidents social events marriage aspect hard difficult events accidents soft easy events business success planet defined tradition Jupiter promotion aspects fits events occurring close hit counted avoid biassing aim count aspects match events events match aspects The small size interval minutes requires high accuracy computed positions computed astronomical accuracy arc lights angles planets arc rest Finally number hits plotted histogram birth time Peaks plot identify times provide fit chart events According traditional claim single pronounced peak true astrological birth time accounts events But observed For book birth time reconstruction Horoscoopcorrectie der praktijk Ankh Hermes Deventer 1985 eminent Dutch astrologer Jack Chandu detailed list dated events life pronounced peak histogram plot time recorded Chandu astrologer father watch synchronised radio time signal Chandu writes possess birth times corrected astrologers agree They deviate minutes actual birth time Such disagreement usual For astrologers worked life events Ronald Reagan produce birth times spanning hours accurate astrologer concerned Also progressions events events feature prominently unimportant events author check Chandu selected events But peak contained events method applied hours birth traditional claim event life occurs progression involving chart angle force time wrong Also events peak expected chance implies peak meaningless reflect reason assume Chandu birth time Furthermore bias needed selection events produce peak histogram For Chandu included events list fitted progressions raise average peak height hits measured hours observed check method applied life author Graham Greene accurately dated events listed biography The Life Graham Greene Norman Sherry biography Greene Sherry interested astrology After discarding trivial events single peak peak observed birth time recorded mother Weighting events difference changing rules selecting hits Tests subjects Worse charts events generated random peaks meaningless real data plots Left Terpstra Chandu Greene sets random data Conclusion birth time reconstruction based progressions work general progressions work Prediction based Uranus Neptune ConjunctionsSietze van der Tuin AinO 1992 Uranus change revolution Neptune fantasy idealism conjunction occurred 1820 characterised technological industrial revolution political upheavals death Napoleon matches Uranus Neptune 1819 Mars opposition Uranus Neptune conjunction year panic broke financial markets leading worst economic depression 19th century predict situation conjunction occurred 1990 1992 Mars opposition And panic despondency money markets 1992 Critique Bert Terpstra fact currency speculation 1992 speculators exploited EEC rules force central banks purchase EEC currency threatened The speculators billions profits despondent case currency speculation depression Saturn Uranus WeatherMarvin Layman Kosmos 1992 During 1975 1978 weather records Saturn Uranus square There correlation surprising tradition suggests consistently bring colder wetter weather During 1988 planets conjunct occasions staying degrees weather Oklahoma live consistently cold wet fact city Tulsa driest year 1907 Postscript editor Susie Porter Most astrologers associate Uranus drought wind She Saturn traditionally cold damp The Aries Ingress 1988 Tulsa glance drought adding planetary nodes helio positions midpoints asteroids Arabic Parts pictures Keep firing arrows eventually hit target The work astrology realise principles issues predicting details difficult Waves Wars 1700 1992Robert Doolaard AinO 1993 earlier unrefereed version article published Astrological Journal September October 1993 subsequently refereed byAinO improved version appears issue editorial comment During Second World War French astrologer Henri Gouchon idea calculating angular separations outer planets Jupiter Pluto March year angular separations plotted graph called cyclic Jupiter wave For included Saturn wave Uranus wave calculated Saturn Pluto Uranus Pluto intention compare cyclic centuries wars occurring period The question wars wars break phase phase wave mega wars occurred phase Jupiter wave phase marked difference observed Saturn Uranus waves Editorial comment study hypothesis formulated advance verified The dominated mega wars This number number cycles small statistical assessment Nevertheless remarkable Only time future big wars downward phases upward phases author cyclic variations studied Andre Barbault Astrologie Mondiale 1979 Charles Harvey Baigent Campion Harvey Mundane Astrology 1984 1992 diagram comments abstract King George III Samuel HemmingsGeoffrey Dean Correlation 1994 The famous story time twins Samuel Hemmings King George III appearance 1822 years death footnote Ashmand translation Ptolemy Tetrabiblos subsequently quoted acknowledgement Raphael Manual Astrology 1828 reads Raphael italics query newspapers February 1820 death Samuel Hemmings noticed stated ironmonger prosperous trade born 4th June 1738 moment late majesty George III parish Martin fields business October 1760 late majesty throne married 8th September 1761 day king finally events life resembled happened late king died Saturday January 29th 1820 day hour late majesty QUERY After authenticated luminous instance foregoing lives individuals born moment corresponded remarkable life death Astrologer justly accused superstition absurdity pronounce fates mankind subject planetary influence rational mind mature sober reflection attribute foregoing pointed agreement destinies mere chance careful search main London newspapers weeks King death failed uncover alleged notice However obituary Obituary The Morning Advertiser London February 1820 column Ashmand mention newspapers plural month February 1820 matches reason Raphael countless subsequent copyists wrong original birthplace prosperous simultaneity events including business short story fabrication Furthermore king city notables cities population England Wales probability birth death twin occurring chance unremarkable The answer Raphael query Yes Follow author Correlation 1995 There mention Samuel Hemmings Richard Speer baptism marriage records London International Genealogical Index parish registers Westminster Samuel Hemmings supposedly born Hammersmith Richard Speer lived They record marriage day King births day King twins Henry Thomas Wallington Other parish registers solve mystery knowing guarantee success task attractive War prosperity year outer planetary cycleRudy Bes Correlation 2001 2004 Evidence presented warfare economic growth correlated outer planetary wave adding sine zodiacal longitude Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto reversing sign reason reversal explained During 1500 1950 correlation independent warfare global wars corrected number tests geocentric heliocentric waves nonsignificant international wars The negative sign wars troughs planetary wave Global warfare predicted 2032 Individually correlations economic growth indicators 1750 Canada France Italy Japan USA averaged corrected number tests Correlations Germany individually Graphs outer planetary fundamental waves 1450 2050 presented general comparisons drawn Renaissance New Age periods Bes planetary wave predictor Doolard cyclic predictor abstracts earlier 1650 2050 predictors Jupiter comparison The scale predictor adjusted amplitude Behaviour cyclic planetary wave predictors 1650 2050The predictors based measures zodiacal longitudes angular separation ways occur traditional chart reading wars relate phases cyclic troughs planetary wave planetary wave phases phases reverse true plots Which negative correlation predictors data points predictors suspect But authors observed correlation imply real link wars economic crises occur erratic intervals combinations planets match frequency combination phase advance reason suspect link place positive meaningless guaranteed Neither author fits wave actual wars performs compared planets Astrology Sex Trafficking Girls NepalPadam Simkhada Dhruba Simkhada Correlation 2004 Over 5000 Nepali girls trafficked prostitution year The business highly profitable strong demand Nepali sex workers Indian brothels Many Nepali astrologers parents surrendered daughter basis astrological indicators But sample Nepali sex workers trafficked girls links astrological factors identify parents daughters prostitution Signs abstracts Results Research Marriage PartnersH Boning van Dam Hepp Kattenburg Kuypers Smit Tijdschrift Astrologie 1978 Harmonious links Sun sign partner Moon sign partner traditionally compatibility inharmonious links Our group investigated claim sample married couples check Kuypers married couples Rudolf Smit Planeten Spreken Fidessa Bussum 1976 For angle tropical signs total observed counts total expected counts Angle signs36 Diff exp Kuypers Diff exp check The aspects occur circle aspects occur counts doubled facilitate comparison cases square direction tradition For angles supposedly direction replicate The correlation observed counts When Sun Sun Moon Moon signs included outcome unchanged correlation observed counts Astrological tradition supported Role Venus Mars choice marriage partnersCornelis Kuypers Wetenschap Astrologie 1983 Links Venus sign partner Mars sign partner sexual relationships For angle tropical signs married couples total observed counts total expected counts Angle signs Diff expectedCounts doubled facilitate comparison For differences small agreement tradition For differences larger contrary tradition There clear support astrological claim Can Self Attribution Explain Sun Sign Guessing Geoffrey Dean Correlation 1983 test conducted 1975 Sunday newspaper News World panel astrologers guess Sun signs subjects sign interviews lasting minutes expected chance The test repeated 1981 panel The subjects friends reporter great astrology The panel sat table downstairs presence reporter subjects brought time random order The subjects interviewed sat upstairs talked Alcohol flowed freely atmosphere including interviews convivial The panel questions mention birthdays The panel told entire test finished occasions panel included Julia Parker John Naylor leading sun sign astrologers test tape panel questions talk subjects average knowledge Sun signs read Linda Goodman Sun Signs mentioned generally easy panel questions For Are energetic Aries good food Taurus Are generous Leo love jewellery Libra Are ambitious Capricorn foot problems Pisces The questions involved topics feature Sun sign descriptions subjects knew sign details fail guide panel answer Furthermore invited interests reply length small astrological role playing needed provide good clues For Anything physical attracts Aries The life mother Cancer neat clean Virgo wear tie Sagittarius short rely attribution tendency people sun signs shift image direction abstract picked artful questioning Indeed level attribution determined questions ideal conditions predicted test outcome hits misses Sun sign guessing explained subject selection attribution body language Self Attribution Moderator Variable Differential PsychologyKurt Pawlik Lothar Buse Correlation 1984 English translation Eve Jackson Dave Stevens original German Zeitschrift fur Sozialpsychologie 1979 test presented hypothesis relationship astrological birth sign personality differences extraversion neuroticism reported Mayo White Eysenck explained terms attribution personality Responses adult subjects questionnaires German version Eysenck Personality Inventory Belief Familiarity Astrology analysed analyses variance belief astrology independent variables explanation Mayo White Eysenck terms attribution theory essentially verified New Test Zodiac SignsBrian Riley APP 1984 One frequent objections raised statistical signs single factors studied numerous factors allegedly influencing trait The experiment designed meet objection account sign position Ascendant Sun Moon Mercury Venus Mars The polarity element scores subjects extreme scores Eysenck Personality Inventory compared scores The observed correlations traditional claims links personality signs zodiac unfounded Test Sidereal Sign DelineationsArthur Blackwell APP 1986 The Gauquelins applied statistical teats tropical sign keywords The author familiar work siderealists renown Fagaa Gleadow decided test sidereal sign keywords Gauquelin trait word list Sidereal signs ancient idea tropical signs East Nevertheless weren positive author opinion keywords ascribed sidereal signs Fagan Gleadow useless abandoned siderealist Sun Moon sign analysis football notablesDon Woolson Kosmos 1988 previous study famous athletes deficit Moon Pisces observed expected led predict deficit professional footballers But 1210 football players Ronald Medell Who Who Football failed confirm observed expected Sun Moon sign high led question previous findings Significant findings prove add support hypothesis issue letter Alan Richter issue complained data presented article required scientific journal editor replied author submit data case Kosmos scientific journal Sun Sign Patterns Nobel LaureatesRoy Tate APP NCGR 1989 reissued 4th edition book The Astrology Genius based years The chi square test reveals odds distribution Sun signs Nobel laureates Francoise Gauquelin response Sorry disappoint dear Roy book reveal astrological law describes Nobel laureates demographic law Europe high level scientists ordinary people months births The eliminate demographic artifacts consists comparing target sample sample ordinary people born economic conditions geographical area period time Maybe control interference ready publish outcomes control charge There response Sun Sign Birth Life Span 7136 peopleFrans Vermeer AinO 1992 study investigated correlation Sun sign birth life span humans Special attention astrological postulation people born sign Capricorn live markedly longer people born signs required data collected tombstones cemeteries South Netherlands The dates birth death 7136 people transcribed Infants died year birth exciuded All data statistical program One analysis variance revealed correlation life span birth sign The life span Capricorns scored astrological postulation Capricorns live longest supported Sign Branch Study 8379 University StudentsJan van Rooij AinO 1992 study sign positions Sun Mercury Venus Mars compared 5147 psychology students 3232 engineering students According Jungian theory psychology students high Intuition Feeling Fire Water signs engineering students high Thinking Sensing Air Earth signs Expectancies calculated birth rates month years 1952 1973 students born period Central Bureau Statistics Netherlands result psychology engineering students differentiated planetary sign positions division frequencies signs higher values astrologers people tend assign meaning appealing figures case chance level This explain discrepancy astrologers insist astrology works researchers consistently Guessing Sun Moon Ascending signsWim Heideman AinO 1992 Guesses Sun Moon Ascending sign large number people encountered everyday life bars plan controls The guesses compared actual sign subject The guesses based likeness sign person general appearance behaviour aimed Sun Moon Ascendant Usually guesses told answer But response wrong case author guessing guessed correctly The Mean guesses Mean hitsSign Subjects Guesses Hits subject guessSun 1783 100Asc 102Moon 111The number subjects smallest Moon people knew Moon sign signs Expectancies estimated making random guess subject repeating 3000 times This hit rates 0833 0848 0861 close theoretical expectancy 0833 single guess assuming signs equally probable observed hit rates The author considers attribution unintentional subject reactions recording errors carefully misses concludes small surplus hits real capacity recognise elements horoscope However expectancies invalid allowance demography months births astronomy signs days Earth elliptical orbit vary Sun sign expectancies Moon signs differences ascension time vary Ascendant expectancies Sun Ascending signs equally probable inflated hit rates simply substituting frequent signs guess signs equally probable guesses stopping probability hit But guesses wrong probability hit remaining signs higher That observed hit rates exceed unremarkable Unfortunately author ignores problems record guessing procedure case evaluated Nevertheless claimed positive result guesses stops higher expectancies opposed guesses observed hit rate increase guesses subject increases Finally skilled cold reader pick correct sign simply reciting signs watching body language short support author conclusion Astrologically Predictable Patterns Work Related InjuriesSara Klein Kosmos 1993 Study doctoral dissertation psychology University Humanistic Studies Del Mar 1992 references 1988 people USA suffered disabling injuries work compared disabling injuries car accidents falls firearms poisoning burns There specific astrological factor accidents general involving hard aspects transitting planets natal planets generally accepted order decreasing severity The astrological work dealing accidents Charles Carter The Astrology Accidents 1932 looked natal planets cases accident transitting planets study experimental data consisted birth dates accident dates 1023 people California disabled months accident work 1983 1991 filed Workers Compensation claim The data copied request reports doctors referred lawyers presenting claim The copyists told needed statistical study injury patterns Cases excluded uncertain injury injury psychological stress definite onset lung disease The sample consisted English speaking cases independent sources Spanish speaking cases Mexicans Los Angeles clinic dealt Hispanics groups accidents marked tendency occur transitting Sun natal Sun orb groups 001 expectancy assumed total orb observed expected number aspects 1023 Orb Obs Exp Obs Exp15 3810 66By chi squared test excess highly typically The excess larger conjunction rest showing peak time accidents victim birthday suggesting parties depression thought older But astrology explain accidents peak months victim birthday But accidents frequent weekends assumed expectancy invalid Also birth accident dates reported doctor time accident accurate Similarly minimum month period work required data included suspiciously close period hard aspects These points covered follow study reported Zip Dobyns Mark Pottenger house journal Mutable Dilemma 1996 1997 1997 1999 tested large Swedish database 2865 persons suffered critical work accidents 1993 Further data privacy laws The Swedish data total significance aspects natal transitting Suns day accident conjunction strongest Furthermore Sweden medical met file claim accidents timed indicating careful reporting Sara suspects claims younger individuals California fraudulent Jungian Typology Astrology Empirical TestJan van Rooij AinO 1993 tested claim Sun element birth psychological functions Carl Jung typology Sun Fire sign dominant Intuition function Earth Sensing Air Thinking Water Feeling Birth dates scores Myers Briggs Type Indicator personality test standard measure Jungian functions subjects males females The dominant psychological function relation element When cases divided Intuition Sensing Thinking Feeling relation element tests signifiant strongest weak relationship Feeling Water relationship Jungian typology astrological elements supported Test Alice Bailey Ray Theory Sun SignsPeter Niehenke Correlation 1997 Last year learned study James David based Alice Bailey theory Seven Rays claimed theory photographs people accurately matched Sun sign tested Sun sign claims negative claim hard decided test claim photographs rejected indefinite The chance level The hit rate tendency increase judgement certainty These theory applied James David validity There justification conducting elaborate test Astrology This Proof Geoffrey Dean Correlation 1997 The headlined article Daily Mail February 1998 presenting exclusive study appears prove star sign accurate indicator character representative sample 1092 adults unidentified personality profiles Sun sign profiles applied Six signs chose profile frequently signs chose The article suggested proof astrology wrong Scorpios chose profile frequently signs chose profiles equal Scorpio Indeed Aquarians profile 1st position hit expect chance But solitary hit dubious Aquarius rated signs Taureans rated direction Gemini rated signs Geminians rated higher sixth Furthermore women men consulted horoscope column familar Sun sign profiles Therefore hit rate increase Daily Mail profiles closer traditional profiles proved broadly case Daily Mail confirm critics long astrologers long denying reason Sun sign profiles accepted astrology social desirability attribution effects Which newspaper resident astrologer Jonathan Cainer claiming study confirms relevance astrology time folk keen dismiss ancient superstition The Start Age AquariusNick Campion Correlation 2000 The notion Age Aquarius imminent frequently astrological literature However agreement inauguration calculated accepted definition Age First Point Aries tropical zodiac precesses equal degree division sidereal sign Aquarius unequal sidereal constellation Aquarius The moment occurs depend boundary sign constellation fixed Opinion varies considerably school school astrologer astrologer witnessed wide variations Ayanamshas difference degrees Aries tropical sidereal zodiacs India addition western astrologers increasingly point planetary movements tropical zodiac define Age Includes referenced list dates 1457 3550 proposed believers Age Aquarius Aspects abstracts The Validity Astrological AspectsPeter Niehenke APP 1984 author PhD thesis sample 3500 persons advertisments magazine newspapers completed Freiburg Personality Inventory scales item questionnaire aimed verifying astrological claims The result 3150 usable responses The questionnaire included items aimed verifying aspect meanings textbooks For response item lucky love people Venus Saturn aspects tend Yes Venus Jupiter aspects investigate aspect pairs items limited aspects outer planets Jupiter Neptune personal planets Sun Mars including Ascendant aspects Sun Moon Venus Mars The uniformly inconsistent There differences unluckiness love people Venus Saturn Venus Jupiter aspects orb degrees Nor consistent link Saturn Jupiter positions 5th house love sexuality 7th house partners Contrary textbooks people Saturn aspects feel lonely unfortunate skeptical unhappy exploited cautious Saturn aspects Saturn aspects Nor link scores relevant scales Depression personality inventory When sample divided responses support Saturn tradition replicate expected chance The planets negative Conclusion descriptions subjects fit teachings astrological textbooks Even good Jupiter trines feel sunny Even bad Saturn squares feel depressed professional astrologer recognise negative reality But evidence success counselling reality astrology exists surely enjoyable This remains moment true Astrological Aspects Birth Eminent PeopleMichel Gauquelin Correlation 1985 The occurrence major aspects conjunction opposition square trine sextile orb degrees Sun Moon Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn examined groups eminent professionals totalling cases When aspects combined excess deficit aspects involving planets key sectors tenth excess deficit frequencies key sectors Overall occurrence individually chance level There correlation planets key sectors Nor agree 1977 unpublished study Dieschbourg Dieschborg looked multiple degree aspects groups eminent professionals totalling 000 cases overlap Gauquelin data control groups roughly size born period weak Thus comparisons excess deficit aspects personal planets Sun Mars outer planets Jupiter Pluto expectancy albeit inflated selection The orb adjusted aspect probability aspect typically degrees Thus mutual groups military leaders painters sculptors musicians physicians scientists Dieschbourg excess deficit times larger tended direction These negligible agreement key sector effects aspect effects precisely expected aspects support traditional meanings generally attributed aspects astrological textbooks Planetary Aspects Improved Method Yields Negative ResultsSuitbert Ertel Correlation 1988 attempt evidence relations traditional aspects human birth Gauquelin data eminent individuals representing professions subjected time series analysis segmenting periods hypothetical aspect influence preceding succeeding time periods equal duration The frequencies births time segment superimposed profession aspects conjunctions squares oppositions Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Mean time series empirical aspect occurrences compared time series equivalent random segments controls indication aspect influence Going Step FARtherMark Pottenger Kosmos 1989 The author describes development FAR Frequencies Aspect Research program draws graphs showing angular separation varies bodies including ascendant nodes time interval Despite worked years planet house formulas unprepared extreme uniformity extreme hazard graphs revealed Assumptions uniform motion approximation shaky grounds Three examples Distribution geocentric angular separations measured daily Left Mars conjunct Sun roughly times frequent Mars opposition Sun samples controls mistaken astrological Centre Venus stays close Sun Venus Mars broadly Sun Mars large additional fluctuations Right Abrupt frequency occur small range angular separation sample period short compared period planetary pair Saturn Uranus The FAR program visual picture uniform contacts occur planets researchers aware illustrates ways computers revolutionised approach astrological eliminating manual calculations Graphs unthinkable 1970s Mark Pottenger virtuoso plots ISAR Anthology Astrological Research Methods 1995 Another appears abstract Sun Uranus DemographicsMark Pottenger APP NCGR 1989 The author examines angular separations Sun Uranus yearly distributions birth bias calculates distribution Sun longitudes period 1900 1930 Uranus retrograde During period time Uranus retrograde July August Sun Leo plotted numbers confirm peak Sun Leo tapering sides The figure illustrates 1373 Gauquelin professionals born 1900 1930 Uranus retrograde The distribution peak Sun Leo degrees Houses abstracts Test House SystemsRichard Nolle Kosmos 1987 The question house plagued astrologers centuries study notable athletes Gauquelin Book Amnerican Charts athletes controls timed births charts calculated Placidus Koch Equal house systems None relationship athletic achievement house position Placidus closely Koch contrast Mars conjunct ascendant degree orb relationship consistent Gauquelin Mars Further tests needed stand house placement chart factor Testing 7th House RulershipMargot Tollefson APP 1995 Among married couples astrological placements rule 7th house This idea tested 2825 couples Gauquelin heredity study 1976 total placements tested Sun sign 7th house sign sign Sun house sign ruler 7th house case observed frequency typically couple compared frequency sample 2825 randomly matched pairs None level Confining sample couples children difference Answer opening question Global HoroscopesMichael Wackford Correlation 2005 This paper concludes review horoscopy Polar Regions aim clear misconceptions circumpolar horoscopy examine nature viability number house systems establish methods house division applied Polar Regions entire planet Only Equal Campanus Placidus deserve consideration The presents difficulties circumpolar ascendant reverses pretends skies witnessed equator quadrant applied polar regions sacrificing astronomical astrological integrity But fail unambiguous cusps Gauquelin abstracts Response Eysenck Evaluation Mars EffectProf Marcello Truzzi APP 1984 The case neo astrological causalities Gauquelins work greatly strengthened consideration total corpus researches And context increases scientific priority work accorded adding extraordinariness anomalies hand Gauquelin Eysenck work presenting real anomalies represents extraordinary set claims commensurate proof The work encouraged But independent replications elimination normal alternative explanations neoastrology gain scientific acceptance And True false answer lies continued investigation studies Profession Heredity Computer analysis New InvestigationsMichel Gauquelin Correlation 1984 The study analyses profession heredity data published volumes Gauquelin laboratory 1970 1971 The confirmed original Gauquelin based hand calculations years significance inadvertent bias hand calculations interpolating tables Again Moon Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn average excess deficit rising culminating sectors famous professionals range Several analyses lead understanding planetary effects For famous professionals Placidus sectors hour sectors measured rising culminating points produced individual rise set sectors The area maximum influence existed uniformly sectors marked decrease boundaries comparison influence sectors small Sectors independent harmonics For heredity data zone size maximum zones parent born planet zones tendency child born planet zones Overall study demonstrates computers avoid human bias perform investigations complex undertaken hand How Strong Planetary Effects Ordinary People Franz Stark APP 1986 1987 comments Suitbert Ertel 1987 independent replication Francoise Gauquelin 1988 questionnaire listing character types completed persons astrology magazine friends addresses chosen random telephone directory The respondent birth data knew horoscope person tick types respondent belonged Each type Gauquelin planetary trait For Type agreeable compromising good taste charming flexible diplomatic evasive Venus Type active impatient combative passionate energetic direct willed indefatigable Mars 2×2 tests type planet zones correlations phi type relevant planet positive generally knowledge horoscope type respondent person Compared typical correlation planet profession correlations astonishingly high Comment APP Suitbert Ertel points conflict Gauquelin larger samples ordinary people links chance character traits planet attribution adequately controlled Stark replies started replication questionnaire controls Replication APP Franz Stark presents This time sample size persons The consistent negative Nevertheless Gauquelin continues Replication APP Francoise Gauquelin repeats Stark study sample persons USA Brazil publication Stark questionnaire APP handing lectures When allowance number tests result highest correlation Saturn positive When respondents allowed select individual traits types ticked flattering traits avoided ticking type ticked types Conclusion questionnaire good needed improvement validation groups people This slow process efficient tool testing Gauquelin effects There subsequent studies improved questionnaire Planetary Effects Defy Physical InterpretationSuitbert Ertel Correlation 1989 The author previous Gauquelin data confirmed existence planetary effects eminent professionals However casts doubt Gauquelin physical explanation For sports champions planetary unrelated astronomical variables distance Mars Earth angular size apparent magnitude declination ascension solar elongation radius vector Furthermore diminish Mars Sun conjunctions For ordinary people Gauquelin claim geomagnetic activity enhanced planetary correspondence children parents supported Nor planetary eminent professionals correlate geomagnetic activity Gauquelin positive geomagnetism random oscillations Gauquelin claim planetary effects decrease 1950 presumed applying obstetric drugs verified professionals data However number post 1950 births insufficient definite conclusion The accuracy birth times official documents increased markedly decades 1830 1950 produced increase planetary birth frequencies light Gauquelin midwife hypothesis untenable case interpretation planetary effects terms physics physiology replaced Confirmation Gauquelin Effects 1288 Eminent PhysiciansArno Muller APP NCGR 1989 Using official birth time records 1288 eminent physicians author replicate Gauquelin data sources study Gauquelins comparisons gathering data processing ensuring correct replication study The initial Gauquelin data rechecked corrected essentially degree significance remained The Muller data expected direction Mars Jupiter Saturn subsample renowned physicians increased significance Mars result For Saturn highest result observed French physicians Therefore study confirms Gauquelin observations Unresolved Problems Heredity Character Traits Aspects Signs Francoise Gauquelin APP 1992 Michel passing left problems unresolved They adequate scrutiny justice remarkable experimental intuition They Heredity Hypothesis larger sample fail bring Character Traits Hypothesis Michel Suitbert disagree aspect zodiac sign investigations tests wise astrologers positive erroneous statistics astronomical demographic artifacts explain fully assumed astrological Today years problems longer unresolved 8000 Chart Factors Tested Gauquelin Professional DataMike Neill APP 1994 The Gauquelin timed birth data eminent professionals 942 divided professional groups actors doctors combined groups writers journalist combined data combined data combined weighting hard evidence based nature profession revealed Ertel cluster analysis tested 7868 astrological factors 7868 tests The factors tested planets signs factors planets houses factors aspects 1960 factors planet formations 2478 factors harmonic aspects factors midpoints 1716 factors planetary qualities factors speed retrogradation distance The statistical significance result determined test expected values based control charts generated years tested chart Despite large number factors replicated testable hypothesis eminent professionals excess easy oppositions kites involving ascendant planets The pilot suggested excess expected replication untested data deficit hypothesis confirmed Interestingly Gauquelin key sectors included relevant factors Gauquelin emerge expected emerge doubt specific planet profession combinations singled approach This suggests Gauquelin dramatic spotted early pursued relentlessly Nevertheless factors involve effects magnitude Gauquelin escape detection tests Planets Semantic SpaceGraham Douglas APP 1995 study structure Gauquelin implications astrology Although Gauquelin inter relations planets Mars Jupiter Saturn deduced trait word analysis central theory Here inter planetary structure similarities differences planetary trait starting point speculations marginalizing Then follow speculations placing planets quadrants formed good bad hard soft Discussion Francoise Gauquelin APP 1995 previous issues journal expressed regret Graham Douglas prove hypotheses likes formulate Without confrontation external realities idea semantic space inter planetary structure risks remain sterile Piling succession brilliant ideas verified hypotheses building castles sand houses cards Did hear historical discussion theologians France occupied months abstract problem gender angels belong The final answer problem Angels belong male gender But unsolvable objection arose Why respectable religious painters represent angels face garb woman unanswerable objection That risk rely theories tangible facts confirming adequacy Birth Time Precision Gauquelin EffectSuitbert Ertel Correlation 1995 The Gauquelin increase increased birth time precision The data bear contrary diminish birth time recordings 1880 onwards The expected positive overridden psychological sociological variables depressing enhancing birth record precision time Until intervening variables remain enigmatic But abstract Attribution Pervasive New Artifact Gauquelin DataGeoffrey Dean AinO 2000 The Gauquelin findings puzzling astrology link Sun science link physical variables But consistent artifacts attribution social effects Thus Gauquelin professional groups 15942 births desirable undesirable days surpluses deficits generally consistent professional groups The planetary size larger desirable days easily faking undesirable days fake 029 012 planetary effects unrelated social effects Faked times precise explains contrary expectation sizes increase decreasing birth time precision The 12398 parents 12550 children Gauquelin heredity experiment heredity sizes children greater sex parents 022 sex parents 012 heredity effects unrelated social effects Social effects explain planetary effects disappear births 1950 Gauquelin suggested births upset medical intervention But modern demand official documentation prevent faking The idea faking prevented plausible idea hospitals doctors midwives intervening births Nevertheless conclude social effects explain Gauquelin puzzling findings planetary effects disappear conditions social effects absent parents excluded birth reporting process child ignorant birth planets Planetary Effects Brought Down EarthSuitbert Ertel Correlation 2001 2001 2002 2002 2003 Dean requirement superstitious beliefs stronger rural areas supported 952 French professionals Christian feast days excess births priests monks 942 professionals Superstition declined steadily 1800 1950 avoidance unlucky days planetary effects avoidance valid measure belief total hospital births 1987 1994 strong midnight avoidance disconfirming link witches Faking dates faking astrology evil difficult faking planetary effects weaker faked days stronger Adding planets increase correlation avoidances extra Dean type explanations planetary effects untenable Reply Dean Correlation 2006 points requirement superstitious beliefs stronger rural areas The excess births priests monks Christian feast days expected direction Astrological beliefs regarded elite science qualify superstition The avoidance witching minute witching hour avoid ambiguity witches faking sense Why adding relevant planets provide extra Ertel points ignore crucial heredity findings cluster analyses astonishingly close match Gauquelin puzzles Counter reply Ertel issue concludes Dean continues propagate views factual contradictions For interchange The Gauquelin work website Gauquelin Tests astrologers abstracts Chart Interpretation Alternative Strategy CounselingMary Cummings Melinda Smith Kristi Lovick Paul Crosbie Kosmos 1978 This study University Montana explores public acceptance astrology tests validity chart interpretations Part questionnaire survey university students exposed astrology newspapers books knew characteristics tbeir Sun sign felt astrology validity visit astrologer The students receptive astrology majoring science business agreed traditional counselling valid parents friends receptive astrology Part subjects working blind pick chart interpretations based time place birth The authentic chart interpretation rated 1st 2nd 3rd subjects expected chance table text suggests The rating point scale Extremely descriptive Extremely descriptive authentic charts controls Neither difference direction Part subjects hour oral reading chart questionnaire determine Nine subjects rated reading accurate increasing confidence validity astrology rated chart interpretation counselling The rated reading moderately accurate chart interpretation moderately counselling The researchers reading highly effective eliciting personal subject conventional interview Conclusion chart readings accurate counselling tool Most counselling relationship rests accuracy reading counselling skill person reading Two Tests AstrologersWout Heukelom Tidschrift Astrologie 1978 1979 Four horoscopes dentist businessman painter engineer matched owner profession members NGPA Dutch Society Practising Astrologers responses correct expected chance correct expected correct expected correct expected However horoscopes years professional astrologer suspected selected closely fitted average textbook For businessman Sun Mercury 2nd house indicating life dealing money decided repeat test NGPA members unselected horoscope professions members responded This time correct matches correct Indeed outcome disappointing exact numbers recorded The result illustrates avoid bias prior selection Can Astrology Predict The Whole ChartGeoffrey Dean Correlation 1985 test astrologers chart predict extraversion emotionality ordinary people charts subjects extreme scores Eysenck Personality Inventory judged astrologers beginners recognised experts The subjects selected parent sample 1198 subjects extreme subjects categories birth times generally hour allowed total judgements judgements larger judgements typical previous studies The average pair extremes equivalent extreme persons random sample adults This compares usual approach experimental psychology extreme persons random sample Allowing minutes judgement test required week evenings complete largest astrologers tolerate All charts calculated ACS style preferred astrologer choice house systems midpoints asteroids Hindu sidereal navamsa The astrologers judged direction high confident judgement control astrologers judgements simply guessing The result 5400 judgements number control judgements For agreement astrologers poor kappa direction confidence hit rate chance level controls expected chance showing judgements worse charts Distribution hits Above plot black circles equivalent hit rate judgements high medium confidence Other equal hit rate improve confidence increases astrologer complete freedom account relevant factors ranging birth time uncertainty uncertainties interpretation But judgements high confidence confidence Factors technique experience personality gender intuition birth data accuracy difference The fairness test supported high proportion judgements high confidence medium confidence average astrologer years experience spent minutes judgement Palmistry avoids problem uncertain birth times palmists perform astrologers This addressed test audiences astrologers palmists judgements charts hands projected slides extreme scorers main test average time judgement minutes The experienced astrologers time time professionals averaged hits agreement kappa The experienced palmists professionals averaged hits agreement kappa The number judgements small genuine difference group performed chance Synthesis audiences swayed judgements presence obsence factors aspect They differed relevant disagreement rule Thus uncommon audience vote vote This disagreement evident faith astrology palmistry astrologers perform cold readers practice student cold reading early tests worst position room noticed announced judgements tended eyes voice correct judgement knew advance hide From cues scored hits higher main test After precautions prevent cues The hit rate astrologers precautions astrologers precautions suggesting astrologers pick cues extent cold reader The astrologer concerned maximising client satisfaction worse abandon astrology pretence astrology favour cold reading Summary Carlson Double Blind Test AstrologyFrancoise Gauquelin APP 1986 issue comments Hans Eysenck Teresa Weed Hamilton The original study Shawn Carlson appeared Nature 1985 time largest study kind notable involving advisory panel prominent NCGR astrologers ensure study fair double blind conditions avoid possibility bias view controversy created abstract includes kindly Carlson 1986 APP abstract original paper The study involved tests subjects advertisements notices San Francisco Bay area pick chart interpretation Subjects excluded disbelieved astrology chart constructed Roughly male age range Subjects test subjects controls birth place time documented birth time recorded minutes The charts calculated astrologers Digicomp DR70 dedicated chart calculating introduced 1970s PCs popular interpretations individually typed total experienced astrologers selected advisory panel competence background psychology Each interpretation 1000 supplied Carlson pre printed headings typical astrology reading personality relationships career education current situation ensure uniformity content length representative professional practice avoid clues interpretation avoided astrological terms age indications addition control subjects Sun sign actual subjects differing age years task Usable responses received subjects controls The subjects ranked authentic interpretation times 1st 2nd 3rd place expected chance times case The control subjects ranked authentic interpretation times 1st 2nd 3rd place expected chance times case test subjects recognise rank accuracy CPI profiles One authentic profile chosen random subjects sex The profiles control subjects chosen random sex test subjects The subjects matched sex CPI scales discriminate sexes The CPI scales good impression communality designed detect faking rest provide scores personality dimensions dominance sociability control responsibility achievement femininity The CPI preference personality inventories scales judged advising astrologers closest discernible chart extensively researched Unfortunately subjects advised advance test interested CPI failed respond The subjects responded ranked authentic profile times 1st 2nd 3rd place expected direction direction picking authentic charts For control subjects responded rankings expected nonsignificant Given difficulty understanding graph readable text unsurprising For charts interpreted chart astrologer CPI profiles One authentic profile chart subject chosen random subjects sex Each astrologer received copy CPI interpretation manual explained meaning interpretation CPI scales They rated fit profile chart scale Because astrologers background psychology claimed formal training psychology average years professional psychologists claimed experience California Psychological Inventory test easier subjects Nevertheless charts returned The astrologers matched authentic profile times 1st 2nd 3rd place expected chance direction The advisory panel predicted tests hit rate expected chance observed hit rates panel satisfied tests fair chance level hit rate subjects picking CPI profile Comments Hans Eysenck Teresa Weed Hamilton focussed CPI Despite popularity validity coefficients single scales collectively scales complex limited good test astrology Its acceptance advising astrologers suggests training psychology Carlson study considered valid test astrology This ignores test involve CPI remains valid Guy Penguern New Challenge CORAFrancoise Gauquelin APP 1987 response Guy Penguern claim determine health problems birth chart submitted cases birth data approximate birth time time death The cases register Paris hospital Initially dozen health problems case number agreements hospital records poor cases agreed focus deaths cancer cardio vascular disease But cases predicted cancer expected chance cancer cases cancer cases wrong direction Guy Penguern patience dedication perform test brings clarification Open Letter National Public RadioPurcell Styber Kosmos 1990 Morning Edition National Public Radio Washington You broadcast tacky segment astrology The astrology impossible accept newspaper horoscopes astrology genuine astrologers refuse accept There large body evidence suggesting genuine astrology dismissed Gauquelin Mars Vernon Clark matching experiments John Nelson radio studies Frank Brown work oysters mention But Choose people send birth data send psychological analysis knowing names Since people fixed opinions rarely receptive contrary evidence understand hear response reported subsequent issues examples evidence time evidently author rest artifacts fourth Gauquelin requires work artifacts disregarded The Devil AdvocateWout Heukelom AinO 1991 The author reviews large scale tests astrologers Carlson Dean McGrew McFall Abstracts included plays role devil advocate criticises astrologers scientists Main conclusions Astrologers judge quality designed scientific studies carry difficult matching tests Apparently untrained person studies single astrological rule combination valid satisfactory explanation astrological point view Readings astrologers chart invalid Another demerit point astrologers Astrologers disagree assessments single birth chart confidence assessment disagree assessing natal chart time Astrologers assume success validity astrology They wrong clients happy delineations wrong charts Probably astrologers aware pschychological physiological mechanisms Barnum effects body language explain apparent success Astrologers protect negative scientific studies adopting astrological nonscientific explanations Collaborative Vernon Clark ExperimentJohn McGrew Richard McFall Correlation 1992 Six astrologers matched birth charts comprehensive case files including photographs item questionnaire devised covered hobbies interests school grades worst subjects talents vocational interests jobs education occupation parents type neighbourhood lived relationship parents siblings dates deaths family dates moves country birth defects disfiguring injuries deviant behaviour convictions victim crime honesty main personal problems religious beliefs health problems fondness travel phobias dislikes attitude authority sexual relationships loyalty favourite colours ideal living situation punctuality perseverance night day person strengths weaknesses friend goals life height weight hair colour eye colour skin colour race Each question open ended forced choice astrologers felt represented everyday astrological practice The charts native Americans men women aged years Altogether considerably involved typical consultation Birth times verified birth records cases recorded precision minutes The accuracy agreement case files expressed Cohen kappa accuracy perfect accuracy The agreement astrologers agreement perfect agreement Accuracy unrelated confidence birth time precision follow study groups astrologers matched subset charts collectively charts matched The accuracy worse chance wrong direction Although astrologers collaborated experiment fair negative findings belief validity astrology Attempt Predict Accidental Death Vedic AstrologyJohn Dudley Correlation 1995 The predictive qualities Vedic astrology tested pairs birth data One pair real person died road accident The fictitious person acted control pair birth place birth dates months death dates Using Vedic astrology form astrology applied India author working blind attempted identify genuine accidental death The result hits misses expected chance The Astrotest Tough Match AstrologersRob Nanninga Correlation 1996 comment Jan van Rooij May 1994 Dutch daily newspaper Algemeen Dagblad published article Martin Boot astrologer argued astrologers predict response astrologer Rene Jelsma claimed astrologers predict decided resolve difference opinion inviting astrologers test All participants receive birth time place anonymous subjects They receive subjects responses questionnaire devised participants 5000 Dutch guilders 2000 offered participant matched charts owners More astrologers sending average questions synthesised list covered education vocation hobbies interests main goals personality relationships health religion asked dates events multiple choice questions Berkeley Personality Profile Eight experienced astrologers checked result major objections suggestion multiple choice questions covering family background The subjects born Netherlands 1957 1959 birth data supported birth certificates Subjects Ascendant cusp minutes difference birth time change sign excluded precaution questionnaire list birth data Dutch skeptics matching pairs Although scored hits reason suppose pairs identified hidden clues astrologers test read charts experienced frequently paid services One quarter members Dutch Society Practising Astrologers Half expected hits expected confidence high fact astrologer scored hits Half scored hits average score hits expected chance size direction There evidence experienced astrologers beginners The agreement astrologers astrologer random generator deciding responses asked astrologers factors responsible disappointing They pointed outer planet positions charts differences questionnaire replies subjects claimed reliable workers differences similarities questions answered truthfully lie hobbies wedding Some participants felt receive received asked arguments unconvincing Even responses including birth data totally false explain astrologers failed mutual agreement Some leading Dutch astrologers explained resorting paranormal They claimed astrologers hits intuition tuning cosmic order authentic consultations interferes selecting clients questions ability disappears But participants agree view participated Furthermore confidence included confidence intuition role maximised method working reason suppose astrology depends paranormal influences Includes birth data Comment test astrologers offered enormous solving puzzle precisely situation requested panicky explanations unnecessary They simply overrated ability Leo Knegt White Crow Beyond Wildest Dreams Rudolf Smit Correlation 1997 follow 1998 upset law crows black seek crows prove single crow white William James What Psychical Research Has Accomplished 1897 Leo Knegt 1882 1957 Netherland eminent astrologers tested 1933 blind trial lawyer Cornelis Van Rossem birth data gender subjects selected precise birth times distinct characteristics availability knew Knegt characteristics verified avoid general ambiguous hard verify cases Knegt asked focus issues career health subject unusual character trait precaution unknown Knegt Van Rossem altered birth ordinates change chart prevented identification registry office identification subjects inspection registry office records published Twee Occulte Problemen The Hague 1933 Van Rossem reproduces Knegt readings columns comments independent assessor Knegt interpretations accurate times amazingly specific specific astrologers today For correct prediction female subject position passenger ship specific days women paid positions subject job position stewardess passenger ship harder position office clerk Knegt Pluto introduced astrology midpoints modern techniques interpretations based planets houses Similarly correctly identified formidable swindler prominent inventor marked nervous disorders long term troubles swollen feet Knegt astrological white crow living proof impossible Knegt For time test good today standards deficiencies For double blind influenced kinds artifact Those Van Rossem unaware lawyer psychologist Those aware early days experimental psychology Those unaware Van Rossem answer questions For post time limits data assessor check printed identical original records Knegt familiar charts subjects public figures unable draw firm conclusions article Van Rossem blind trial examples Knegt specific interpretations charts based readers Knegt birth data subjects readers match case histories correct specifics Knegt interpretations Van Rossem comments For pick chart matched public typical social figure native speculator marked ascent life inglorious Big spender Short lived role author Solid relationships political economic circles Everything asked interpretation Even special talent hit head Also psychological description excellent The point case Knegt successful successful astrologers argue test unrealistic year reply Follow Only readers suggestions Knegt They agree significators Knegt conclusion matching test advertised newsletter Transit order reach large audience 1500 readers astrologers responded appealed Australian astrologer Dymock Brose large worldwide audience website monthly Astrologer Forum newsletter led astrologers responding The disappointing Most astrologers scored chance level hit Only astrologers reached hits Overall hits expected chance astrologer equalled Knegt performance hits Among astrologers agreements agreements expected chance The sizes hits 095 agreement 002 2006 Smit attempted follow matching test internet Eight astrologers responded One scored hits scored hit rest scored hits Most Chinese astrology Can Astrologers Pick Politicians Painters Suitbert Ertel Correlation 1998 German astrologer published improved method chart reading asked test skill accurately timed birth data Scottish politicians Scottish painters randomised order copied documents Edinburgh birth registration office confident judgements chance The challenge extended internet communication Eleven experienced astrologers asked birth data judgements received birth data respond From comments methods diverse approach test manner However perform individually chance range hits scored hits binomial test scored hits Nor succeed group hits equivalent size 068 Moreover agreement poor kappa 056 agreement perfect agreement The result consistent previous studies Possible reasons failure failure astrology include wrong birth data wrong professions insufficiently experienced astrologers plausible Includes birth data Approaches abstracts Unlike previous abstracts focus articles focus approaches matters computers internet hidden persuaders science Astrologers universe consisting connected bits people planets The current scientific model sees universe consisting disconnected bits organised natural evolutionary processes Some astrologers claim difference viewpoint astrology studied science Other astrologers disagree includes arguments aware arguments ignore hidden persuaders historical The Whole More Sum PartsPeter Niehenke APP 1983 Statistical investigations astrology accused justice astrologer intuitive skill bringing bad reputaion convinced astrologers But astrologers misused art brought disrepute scientists Between justified distrust unjustified fear bad accept statistical tools overcoming prejudices improving knowledge Whatever outcome inquiries positive negative discussion astrology aware multiplicity horoscope components open interpretation whatsoever Two examples Recently horoscopes John Lennon birth time indicating Lennon sudden death One clients consulted astrologers She judged interpretation adequate work colleagues comparison aware error years birth Professional Astrology DiscussionAnon Kosmos 1984 discussion leading representatives astrology groups reached agreement definition astrology Astrology philosophy postulates relationship relevant celestial phenomena processes terrestril affairs The definition leaves open relationship leaves undefined celestial phenomena terrestrial affairs adoption schools astrology techniques Agreement reached code ethics based codes represented groups Dictionaries encyclopedias astrology textbooks defined astrology variously science supposed science art divinatory art art science language philosophy understanding But majority roughly define astrology study relationships stars human affairs astrology books reference supposedrelationships Opinions German ConferenceFrancoise Gauquelin APP 1984 changing astrology lost immobility topic diplomas theses numerous year presented universities This trend bringing continuously arguments traditional laws astrological How trend perceived astrologers open debate presided Peter Niehenke Conference German Astrological Association Bensheim April 1984 asked question Astrology Crisis The variety reactions question interesting Here summary Peter Niehenke judgment result negatively admit true astrology Herr Schulze Astrology body knowledge preserved Babylonian priests clay tablets tablets deciphered body knowledge judged condemned modern science Thomas Koberl There definitive judgment long series tests possibility slow adaptation practice verdict Francoise Gauquelin crisis normal events When assertions verified remaining intangible modifications felt painful unavoidable Frau von Kraft Astrology crisis scientific theory checked method helping Gudula Beyse Astrology science mind reduced physical science based analogies rational methods Heidrun Kunzmann The scientific researchers study astrology excessively simplistic This bear Thomas Koberl This evident astrologers method achieve successes practice Karlheinz Grzybienski start observation individual cases But individual cases general knowledge ultimately emerge Adele Conrad The crisis methods theories sense scientific checkings working Manfred Groeger quantifiable proof Peter Niehenke Yes superstitious Have training making comparisons impression rest cosmic bed This accept crisis comfortable beliefs Personal Computers New AstrologyRichard Nolle Kosmos 1987 Only mid 1979s solid technology average person personal Today written 1986 powerful mainframe computers NASA land man Moon affordable astrologer shelf takes minutes calculate print error free natal chart options books parallax correction Before computers Erlewines punched card charts sorted metal rods factor wife shuffled hundreds charts card form All charts calculated hand Today day work months painstaking brain draining exhausting labour Yet astrologers remain trapped dogma tradition learned books written authors learned books passing set rules accepted faith simply test systematically apply charts calculate hand Today accept mess PCs 2007 times faster calculate chart fraction Methodological IssuesJ Becerra Kosmos 1987 Reprinted APP 1988 The author medical epidemiologist evaluates strength observed astrological correspondences relevance astrological practice points measures statistical significance depend sample size correlation variables confounded What needed astrology measure strength association epidemiology measure relativew risk chance chance For chance lung cancer smoke times chance smoke For Mars relative risk risk eminent professional sports champion Mars key sector risk sports champion Mars key sector Here relative risk Obs Exp Obs Exp Obs observed frequency Exp expected frequency sample size terms percentages Gauquelin relative risk That eminent professional times sports champion Mars key sector Since Mars ordinary people Obs Exp relative risk ordinary people That ordinary person sports champion Mars key sector For relative risks defined statistical significance depends sample size Gauquelin work practical The author suggests correspondence practice relative risk exceeds Three years Kosmos 1990 author notes heeded advice adding improper statistics authors valid argument ignoring scientific standards astrological Unfortunately relative risk upper numerical limit disadvantage avoided size expressed correlation limits For Mars Obs Exp Exp 043 roughly relative risk Exp 045 Research Some ConceptsWilliam Brandt Kosmos 1988 The term applied single identifiable meaning One approach classifies historical events descriptive events experimental tests ideas Regardless type good careful systematic tolerate vague sloppy unclear Research needed astrology attain credibility But aim defined Research answer fail define question Science Way ConsensusWout Heukelom AinO 1990 spring 1987 successful Studium Generale held astrology University Groningen Yet complaints sides Scientists objected wrongly astrology unverifiable Astrologers felt wrongly speakers stacked astrology fact astrologers scientists invited speak The organisers wished fair discussion merits astrology based facts gathered This fair consensus astrology facts Unprofessional Tendencies AstrologyJacob Ruijling AinO 1992 Why outsiders perceive astrology nonsense For Dutch skeptics society disclaimer horoscope columns newspapers One reason perception astrologers ignore empirical studies conclude astrology live claims tension astrology observation For joint committee Dutch astrological organisations set formulate guidelines improving astrological practice concluded 1992 quality birth chart reading astrologer determined technique This creates problems ethical codes imply astrologers predict future client health astrology predict The codes astrologers predict definition astrologers avoid predicting birth charts Important questions answer include education medical astrology tested discipline tested education diplomas discipline connected kinds education presently exist astrologers progress recognise astrology predict astrologers predict basis astrology astrologers focus astrology work astrologers work Difficulties Attempting Study Meaning PlutoMarian van Brakel AinO 1993 This article illustrates difficulties encounter attempting astrological astrological practice intrigued link transitting Pluto difficult periods lives clients March 1991 joined committee study Pluto advertised subjects interviewed collected charts But interview inexperienced agree proceed astrologers knew science criticised approach ordinary astrologers wondered thought waste time The committee dissolved April 1992 The article ends plea suitably trained people start project avoids pitfalls But Scientific Approach Relevant Astrology Key Topic Geoffrey Dean Arthur Mather Correlation 1994 collect views topic Dean Mather compiled discourse explored scientific approach limitations relevance astrology potential commentators astrologers subscribers Correlation female responded Their opinions ranged excellent provocative virtually valueless revised discourse light comments respondents replied key astrologers responded initial discourse replied interested scientists replied Where reply recycled author eliminate avoidable arguments cover questions informed readers expected total people responded female Their contributions ranged sentences 4500 bringing view collectively breadth achieved print From debate scientific issues astrology reading collection Summary scientific approach relevant astrology Yes parts testable observation assumptions astrology works causally causally required Thus test person fits chart control requires assumptions Why scientists astrologers conflict astrology works Mainly tend Scientists concerned accuracy controlled tests astrologers concerned satisfaction client acceptance But accuracy unrelated satisfaction views conflict cases reason dishonesty ignorance arrogance Different Approaches Astrological ResearchCharles Harvey Correlation 1994 The ordinary astrologers century led conceptual breakthroughs midpoints harmonics composite charts Astro Carto Graphy formal researchers led impasse Why discrepancy Currently approach scientific focusses measurement Earth analysis Air Other approaches intuition Fire feeling Water generally qualities underpin astrology discrepancy arises failure researchers compare For fruitful compare chart readings personality scores profile produced depth psychologist psychologically aware journalist psychologist evaluate reading intimately Such approaches lend number crunching involve comparing greater chance revealing astrology power people The symbolic terms astrology convincing Authenticity Precondition Tests AstrologyLeon van Assem Wil Rozenbroek Steef van der Weele AinO 1995 1992 NGPA Dutch Society Practising Astrologers surveyed philosophical opinions leading members received replies Concerning scientific astrology views agreed The birth chart person life disposition health circumstances future tendencies abilities morals Not chart indication unfold Indications overruled free There ordering principle life thought working astrological consultation successful consultation requires intuition rapport conversation client identify problem areas correct errors astrology The contradictory indications systems matter Only respondents felt chart interpretation knowing client Some Philosophical Problems Astrology Key Topic Geoffrey Dean Peter Loptson Correlation 1995 Modern philosophers generally accept astrology source sympathy support reject source knowledge This matches idea astrology viewed ways terms satisfaction enjoyed users terms accuracy viewpoints independent purpose consequence Astrology satisfaction viewpoint generally unproblematic Satisfaction typically rests judgements subjective feelings legitimately differ arguments extent type satisfaction astrology pointless The astrology viewed true uncontroversial Nevertheless problems astrologers needlessly embrace assailable arguments Why undermine uncontroversial claims assailable arguments Problems satisfaction depends perceptions fact false Action based false perceptions harmful Astrology accuracy viewpoint faces numerous problems Astrology defined precisely result Astrological effects essentially statistical nonidentifiable event independent source knowledge Astrologers reluctant model predicts criteria tested evidence accept showing failed claims accuracy justified astrologers proper experiments distinguish alternative explanations independent reasons thinking astrological effects exist Astrology InternetJoanna Ashmun Correlation 1996 The author surveyed astrology Internet 1996 Almost public astrology Internet social commercial talk researchers Hundreds astrologers subscribe mailing lists moderated The striking quality lists discuss generating heat light lot power astrology generate mutual social cultural boundaries people join lose takes months newcomers bring topics level discussion deepen time Nothing resolved changed The astrologers treat researchers skeptics treat astrologers disagree continue disagreements existed From experience lists topoics posts astrologers literate average Most iffy quotation Rudhyar Jung support opinions good numbers Many astrologers university educations graduate degrees reading writing scholarship presumed skills rarely escape mailing lists recommended Correlation times relevant haven mentioned replies Overall journals types incuding newspapers popular magazines mentioned lists 2000 postings There frequent mentions big variety astrology books agreement author book word topic June 1995 survey poll alt astrology astrology books readers pick The report doesn replied require respondents titles titles named popular books number picks reported Reinhold Ebertin Combination Stellar Influences Robert Hand Horoscope Symbols Twelve books named author order John Addey Harmonics Astrology Stephen Arroyo Astrology Karma Transformation Geoffrey Dean Arthur Mather Recent Advances Natal Astrology Liz Greene Howard Sasportas The Development Personality Seminars Psychological Astrology Liz Greene The Astrology Fate Liz Greene Saturn New Look Old Devil Robert Hand Planets Transit Marc Edmund Jones The Sabian Symbols Debbi Kempton Smith Secrets Stargazer Notebook Tracy Marks The Astrology Self Discovery Dane Rudhyar The Astrology Personality Bil Tiemey Dynamics Aspect Analysis Another titles named Astrology Human Judgement Key Topic Geoffrey Dean Ivan Kelly Arthur Mather Correlation 1998 Unless understand judgement processes underly chart interpretation assessment hope understand astrology psychological literature processes studied quarter century astrological literature completely neglected The bad news start finish astrology involves kind judgements good There astrological reasons website reasoning errors hidden persuaders astrology valid require astrology true problem peculiar astrology The good news ways avoiding ways fooling ways dealing crooked arguments length However matters universally astrologers teaching institutions Until situation improves education astrologers fatally deficient Being Properly ScientificGeoffrey Dean Correlation 2003 Everyone agree editor designed studies erroneous conclusions But hard agree current studies inCorrelation reach standard Their conclusions erroneous mislead assume confirmation astrology reality matter time Indeed Correlation current title astrology require title astrology phlogiston The crunch question Can astrologers claim This difficult question answer 1970s handful studies existed today studies albeit easily retrievable variety design satisfy enquiries Provisional bounds astrologers The problems astrologers draw conclusions experience decide topic forgotten person working astrologer techniques counselling skills worst case survive disconfirmation Yet advances mentioned current issues Correlation Authors homework properly relevant start astrologers artifact free conditions conditions focus astrologers accept disconfirming evidence evidence reject irrelevant distinguish reality vested interests Galileo Finally authors referees capable attend evidence parts selected prove case short properly scientific Rabbit stew reports rabbits Mrs Beeton catch rabbit Astrology ZodiacPage

Other Posts from same category