History of Astrology is the search for meaning in the sky.
Astrology is at least traced to the 2nd Millenium BC and is rooted in calendar systems that can be used as indications of divine communication to forecast seasonal changes and understand heavenly events. Many civilizations play a part in astronomical activities and some— for example, the Hindus, the Chinese and the Mayans— developed complex processes to predict heavenly natural occurrences. Western astrology, still one of the longest in use, can be traces of Mesopotamia of the nineteenth to seventeenth centuries, spreading to ancient Greece, Rome, the Arab and ultimately central and Western Europe.
Contemporary western astrology is often connected with horoscope schemes that are intended to clarify elements of the person and foresee important occurrences in their life depending on the roles of celestial objects. Astrology has always been seen as a scientific tradition, often in close connection with astronomy, alchemy, meteorology and medicine. It was prevalent in academic circles.It has been mentioned in various political circles in literature, such as Dante Alighieri, Geoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare, Lope de Vega and Calderón de la Barca. After the 19th century was over and the scientific method was adopted on a wide scale, astrology has been successfully challenged for both theoretical and experimental reasons and no scientific validity or explanatory power has been demonstrated. Many societies have accorded astronomical occurrences an significance and Indians, Chinese and Mayans have created intricate processes for the prediction of celestial observations on the earth. West astrology usually comprises of a scheme of horoscopes, in which elements of a person’s character will be explained and future occurrences predicted on the basis of the roles of the sun, moon and other celestial objects at birth. Most astrologers depend on these schemes. Astrology has been regarded as an academic tradition throughout most of its history. This study was embraced in politics and academia and linked to other research such as astronomy, alchemy, meteorology and medicine. At the end of the 17th century, astrology was called into question by new scientific concepts in astronomy and physics (e.g. heliocentrism and Newtonian mechanics). The academical and theoretical position of Astrology has therefore been declining, with a widespread faith in Astrology. Astrology dated 2nd millennium BCE roots calendrical systems predict seasonal shifts interpret celestial cycles signs divine communications Many cultures attached astronomical events Hindus Chinese Maya developed elaborate systems predicting terrestrial events celestial observations Western astrology oldest astrological systems trace roots 19th 17th century BCE Mesopotamia spread Ancient Greece Rome Arab eventually Central Western Europe Contemporary Western astrology systems horoscopes purport explain aspects person personality predict events lives based positions celestial objects majority professional astrologers rely systems Throughout history astrology considered scholarly tradition common academic circles close relation astronomy alchemy meteorology medicine political circles mentioned works literature Dante Alighieri Geoffrey Chaucer William Shakespeare Lope Vega Calderón Barca Following 19th century wide scale adoption scientific method astrology challenged theoretical experimental grounds scientific validity explanatory power Astrology lost academic theoretical standing common belief declined While polls demonstrated quarter American British Canadian people continue star planet positions affect lives astrology recognized pseudoscience belief incorrectly presented scientific The word astrology early Latin word astrologia derives Greek ἀστρολογία ἄστρον astron star λογία logia study account stars Astrologia passed meaning star divination astronomia scientific term Many cultures attached astronomical events Indians Chinese Maya developed elaborate systems predicting terrestrial events celestial observations West astrology consists horoscopes purporting explain aspects person personality predict future events life based positions sun moon celestial objects time birth The majority professional astrologers rely systems Astrology dated 2nd millennium BCE roots calendrical systems predict seasonal shifts interpret celestial cycles signs divine communications form astrology practised dynasty Mesopotamia 1950 1651 BCE Chinese astrology elaborated Zhou dynasty 1046 BCE Hellenistic astrology BCE mixed Babylonian astrology Egyptian Decanic astrology Alexandria creating horoscopic astrology Alexander Great conquest Asia allowed astrology spread Ancient Greece Rome Rome astrology Chaldean wisdom After conquest Alexandria 7th century astrology Islamic scholars Hellenistic texts translated Arabic Persian 12th century Arabic texts imported Europe translated Latin Major astronomers including Tycho Brahe Johannes Kepler Galileo practised court astrologers Astrological references literature works poets Dante Alighieri Geoffrey Chaucer playwrights Christopher Marlowe William Shakespeare Throughout history astrology considered scholarly tradition accepted political academic contexts connected studies astronomy alchemy meteorology medicine 17th century scientific concepts astronomy physics heliocentrism Newtonian mechanics called astrology question Astrology lost academic theoretical standing common belief astrology declined Ancient worldAstrology broadest sense search meaning sky Early evidence humans making conscious attempts measure record predict seasonal reference astronomical cycles appears markings bones cave walls lunar cycles early 000 years This step recording Moon influence tides rivers organising communal calendar Farmers addressed agricultural increasing knowledge constellations seasons rising star groups herald annual floods seasonal activities 3rd millennium BCE civilisations sophisticated awareness celestial cycles oriented temples alignment heliacal risings stars Scattered evidence suggests oldest astrological references copies texts ancient The Venus tablet Ammisaduqa thought compiled Babylon 1700 BCE scroll documenting early electional astrology doubtfully ascribed reign Sumerian ruler Gudea Lagash 2144 2124 BCE This describes gods revealed dream constellations favourable planned construction temple However controversy genuinely recorded time ascribed ancient rulers posterity The oldest undisputed evidence astrology integrated knowledge attributed records dynasty Mesopotamia 1950 1651 BCE This astrology parallels Hellenistic Greek western astrology including zodiac norming point degrees Aries trine aspect planetary exaltations dodekatemoria divisions degrees The Babylonians viewed celestial events signs physical events The Chinese astrology elaborated Zhou dynasty 1046 BCE flourished Han Dynasty 2nd century BCE 2nd century familiar elements traditional Chinese culture Yin Yang philosophy theory elements Heaven Earth Confucian morality brought formalise philosophical principles Chinese medicine divination astrology alchemy Ancient objections img class thumbimage src zodiacpage content uploads 2019 170px Cicero_ _Musei_Capitolini jpg alt width height data file width 1227 data file height 1636 The Roman orator Cicero objected astrologyCicero stated twins objection close birth times personal outcomes developed Saint Augustine argued planets distant earth moon tiny influence compared moon argued astrology explains person fate wrongly ignores visible inherited ability parenting health worked medicine effects weather people Plotinus argued fixed stars distant planets laughable imagine planets human affairs depend position respect zodiac argues interpretation moon conjunction planet good moon bad moon waning wrong moon point view surface sunlight planet point view waning planet sees light moon moon dark bad facing planet Favorinus argued absurd imagine stars planets affect human bodies affect tides equally absurd small motions heavens large people fates Sextus Empiricus argued absurd link human attributes myths signs zodiac Carneades argued belief fate denies free morality people born times die accident battle contrary uniform influences stars tribes cultures Hellenistic Egypt img class thumbimage src zodiacpage content uploads 2019 170px Quadritpartitum jpg alt Ptolemy Tetrabiblos Hellenistic text founded Western astrology width height data file width data file height 1484 copy Ptolemy Tetrabiblos translated Latin Plato TivoliIn BCE Egypt conquered Persians The 1st century BCE Egyptian Dendera Zodiac shares signs Balance Scorpion Mesopotamian astrology With occupation Alexander Great BCE Egypt Hellenistic The city Alexandria founded Alexander conquest place Babylonian astrology mixed Egyptian Decanic astrology create Horoscopic astrology This contained Babylonian zodiac planetary exaltations triplicities signs eclipses Egyptian concept dividing zodiac decans degrees emphasis rising decan Greek planetary Gods sign rulership elements 2nd century BCE texts predict positions planets zodiac signs time rising decans Sothis The astrologer astronomer Ptolemy lived Alexandria Ptolemy work Tetrabiblos formed basis Western astrology enjoyed authority Bible astrological writers years Greece RomeThe conquest Asia Alexander Great exposed Greeks ideas Syria Babylon Persia central Asia Around BCE Berossus priest Bel Babylon moved Greek island Kos teaching astrology Babylonian culture 1st century BCE varieties astrology horoscopes future theurgic emphasising soul ascent stars Greek influence played crucial role transmission astrological theory Rome The definite reference astrology Rome orator Cato BCE warned farm overseers consulting Chaldeans Babylonian star gazers Among Greeks Romans Babylonia Chaldea identified astrology Chaldean wisdom synonymous divination planets stars The 2nd century Roman poet satirist Juvenal complains pervasive influence Chaldeans Still trusted Chaldaeans word uttered astrologer Hammon fountain One astrologers bring Hermetic astrology Rome Thrasyllus astrologer emperor Tiberius emperor court astrologer predecessor Augustus astrology legitimise Imperial rights Medieval worldHinduThe main texts classical Indian astrology based early medieval compilations notably Bṛhat Parāśara Horāśāstra Sārāvalī Kalyāṇavarma The Horāshastra composite work chapters chapters dates 7th early 8th centuries chapters 8th century The Sārāvalī dates English translations texts published Krishna Rau Choudhari 1963 1961 Islamic img class thumbimage src zodiacpage content uploads 2019 220px Translation_of_Albumasar_Venice_1515_De_Magnis_Coniunctionibus jpg alt Image Latin astrological text width height data file width 2419 data file height 1622 Latin translation Abū Maʿshar sDe Magnis Coniunctionibus great conjunctions Venice 1515Astrology Islamic scholars collapse Alexandria Arabs 7th century founding Abbasid empire 8th The Abbasid caliph Mansur founded city Baghdad centre learning included design library translation centre Bayt Hikma House Wisdom continued receive development heirs provide major impetus Arabic Persian translations Hellenistic astrological texts The early translators included Mashallah helped elect time foundation Baghdad Sahl ibn Bishr Zael texts influential European astrologers Guido Bonatti 13th century William Lilly 17th century Knowledge Arabic texts started imported Europe Latin translations 12th century Europe img class thumbimage src zodiacpage content uploads 2019 170px Meister_von_San_Vitale_in_Ravenna jpg alt width height data file width 1409 data file height 1907 Dante Alighieri meets Emperor Justinian Sphere Mercury Canto ParadisoThe astrological book published Europe Liber Planetis Mundi Climatibus Book Planets Regions World appeared 1010 1027 authored Gerbert Aurillac Ptolemy century Tetrabiblos translated Latin Plato Tivoli 1138 The Dominican theologian Thomas Aquinas Aristotle proposing stars ruled imperfect sublunary body attempting reconcile astrology Christianity stating God ruled soul The thirteenth century mathematician Campanus Novara devised astrological houses divides prime vertical houses equal arcs earlier East The thirteenth century astronomer Guido Bonatti wrote textbook Liber Astronomicus copy King Henry VII England owned fifteenth century Paradiso final Divine Comedy Italian poet Dante Alighieri referred countless details astrological planets adapted traditional astrology suit Christian viewpoint astrological thinking prophecies reform Christendom Medieval objections img class thumbimage src zodiacpage content uploads 2019 170px Isidor_von_Sevilla jpeg alt width height data file width 2705 data file height 3009 The medieval theologian Isidore Seville criticised predictive astrologyIn seventh century Isidore Seville argued Etymologiae astronomy movements heavens astrology parts scientific describing movements sun moon stars making predictions theologically erroneous contrast John Gower fourteenth century defined astrology essentially limited making predictions The influence stars turn divided natural astrology effects tides growth plants judicial astrology supposedly predictable effects people The fourteenth century sceptic Nicole Oresme included astronomy astrology Livre divinacions Oresme argued current approaches prediction events plagues wars weather inappropriate prediction valid field inquiry However attacked astrology choose timing actions called interrogation election wholly false rejected determination human action stars grounds free The friar Laurens Pignon 1368 1449 rejected forms divination determinism including stars 1411 Contre les Devineurs This opposition tradition carried Arab astronomer Albumasar 886 Introductorium Astronomiam Magnis Coniunctionibus argued view individual actions larger scale history determined stars Renaissance Early Modern img class thumbimage src zodiacpage content uploads 2019 220px Robert_Fludd27s_An_Astrologer_Casting_a_Horoscope_1617 jpg alt width height data file width data file height Astrologer Casting Horoscope Robert Fludd Utriusque Cosmi Historia 1617Renaissance scholars commonly practised astrology Gerolamo Cardano cast horoscope king Edward England John Dee personal astrologer queen Elizabeth England Catherine Medici paid Michael Nostradamus 1566 verify prediction death husband king Henry France astrologer Lucus Gauricus Major astronomers practised court astrologers included Tycho Brahe royal court Denmark Johannes Kepler Habsburgs Galileo Galilei Medici Giordano Bruno burnt stake heresy Rome 1600 The distinction astrology astronomy clear Advances astronomy motivated desire improve accuracy astrology Ephemerides complex astrological calculations almanacs interpreting celestial events medicine choosing times plant crops popular Elizabethan England 1597 English mathematician physician Thomas Hood set paper instruments revolving overlays students work relationships fixed stars constellations midheaven astrological houses Hood instruments illustrated pedagogical purposes supposed relationships signs zodiac planets parts human body adherents believed governed planets signs While Hood presentation innovative astrological standard Gerard Mercator astrological disc 1551 source Mercator English astrology reached zenith 17th century Astrologers theorists researchers social engineers providing individual advice monarchs Among astrologers advise time journey harvest crop diagnose prescribe physical mental illnesses predict natural disasters This underpinned people universe understood interconnected astrology existed happily religion magic science Enlightenment period onwards img class thumbimage src zodiacpage content uploads 2019 220px Seven_spiritualists_1906 jpg alt width height data file width data file height Middle class Chicago women discuss spiritualism 1906 During Enlightenment intellectual sympathy astrology fell leaving popular supported cheap almanacs One English almanac compiler Richard Saunders spirit age printing derisive Discourse Invalidity Astrology France Pierre Bayle Dictionnaire 1697 stated subject puerile The Anglo Irish satirist Jonathan Swift ridiculed Whig political astrologer John Partridge Astrology popular revival starting 19th century general revival spiritualism New Age philosophy influence mass media newspaper horoscopes Early 20th century psychiatrist Carl Jung developed concepts astrology led development psychological astrology Principles practiceAdvocates defined astrology symbolic language art form science method divination Though cultural astrology systems share common roots ancient philosophies influenced methods differ West These include Hindu astrology Indian astrology modern times referred Vedic astrology Chinese astrology influenced cultural history WesternWestern astrology form divination based construction horoscope exact moment person birth tropical zodiac aligned equinoctial points Western astrology founded movements relative positions celestial bodies Sun Moon planets analysed movement signs zodiac spatial divisions ecliptic aspects based geometric angles relative They considered placement houses spatial divisions sky Astrology modern representation western popular media reduced sun sign astrology considers zodiac sign Sun individual birth represents total chart The horoscope visually expresses set relationships time place chosen event These relationships planets signifying tendencies war love signs zodiac houses Each planet sign house chosen time observed chosen place creating kinds relationship kind aspect planet planet planets trine harmonious relationship planets square conflicted relationship Together relationships interpretations supposedly form language heavens speaking learned men Along tarot divination astrology core studies Western esotericism influenced systems magical belief Western esotericists Hermeticists belief systems Wicca borrowed influenced Western esoteric tradition Tanya Luhrmann magicians astrology refers table correspondences Starhawk The Spiral Dance organised planet astrological lore studied magicians Hindu img class thumbimage src zodiacpage content uploads 2019 170px Brooklyn_Museum_ _Page_from_an_Astrological_Treatise jpg alt width height data file width data file height Page Indian astrological treatise 1750The earliest Vedic text astronomy Vedanga Jyotisha Vedic thought include astrology Hindu natal astrology originated Hellenistic astrology 3rd century BCE incorporating Hindu lunar mansions The names signs Greek Krios Aries Hindi Kriya planets Greek Helios Sun astrological Hindi Heli astrological terms Greek apoklima sunaphe declination planetary conjunction Hindi apoklima sunapha Varaha Mihira texts considered conclusive evidence Greek origin Hindu astrology The Indian techniques augmented Babylonian techniques Chinese East AsianFurther Chinese zodiacChinese astrology close relation Chinese philosophy theory harmonies heaven earth man concepts yin yang Five phases Celestial stems Earthly Branches shichen form timekeeping religious purposes The early Chinese astrology confined political astrology observation unusual phenomena identification portents selection auspicious days events decisions The constellations Zodiac western Asia Europe sky divided Three Enclosures sān yuán Twenty Eight Mansions 二十八宿 èrshíbā xiù 十二次 The Chinese zodiac animal signs represent types personality based cycles years lunar months hour periods day shichen The zodiac traditionally sign Rat cycle proceeds animals signs Tiger Rabbit Dragon Snake Horse Goat Monkey Rooster Dog Pig Complex systems predicting fate destiny based birthday birth season birth hours ziping Wei Dou Shu simplified Chinese 紫微斗数 traditional Chinese 紫微斗數 pinyin zǐwēidǒushù regularly modern day Chinese astrology They rely direct observations stars The Korean zodiac identical Chinese The Vietnamese zodiac identical Chinese zodiac animal Water Buffalo fourth animal Cat Rabbit The Japanese 1873 celebrated year January Gregorian calendar The Thai zodiac Chinese New Year day month Thai lunar calendar Songkran festival celebrated April depending purpose History Astrology ZodiacPage