The mythology of the Celtic, the religion of the Celtic Iron Age, is a Celtic mythology. The early Celts maintained a polytheistic myth and a spiritual framework like other Europeans in the Iron Age. The Roman Empire, its mythology, its subsequent conversion to Christianity and the loss of their Celtic language did not survive Celts in close contact with ancient Rome, such as the Gaulians and Celtiberians. Mostly their mythology has been preserved through contemporary Roman and Christian sources. The Celtic peoples that retained political identity and linguistic connections (for example the Gaels in Ireland and Scotland, Welsh in Wales and the Southern Celtic British).
While much of West and Central Europe covered the Celtic universe in its height, it was neither politically unified nor a significant centre-level cause of cultural impact or homogeneity; as a consequence, local Celtic methods were very much different (although certain motives, like G-d Lugh, seemed to have spread throughout the Celtic globe). More than three hundred deities, often equating themselves to their Romans, remained inscriptions, but the majority seemed genius of the region, local or tribal gods, with few commonly adorated. However, it is possible to discern commonalities from what has survived of Celtic mythologyCeltic mythology mythology Celtic polytheism religion Iron Age Celts Like Iron Age Europeans early Celts maintained polytheistic mythology religious structure For Celts close contact Ancient Rome Gauls Celtiberians mythology survive Roman Empire subsequent conversion Christianity loss Celtic languages contemporary Roman Christian sources mythology preserved The Celtic peoples maintained political linguistic identities Gaels Ireland Scotland Welsh Wales Celtic Britons southern Great Britain Brittany left vestigial remnants ancestral mythologies written form Middle Ages Although Celtic height covered western central Europe politically unified substantial central source cultural influence homogeneity result great deal variation local practices Celtic religion motifs god Lugh diffused Celtic Inscriptions deities equated Roman counterparts survived genii locorum local tribal gods worshiped However survived Celtic mythology discern commonalities hint unified pantheon credit The nature functions ancient gods deduced names location inscriptions iconography Roman gods equated figures bodies Celtic mythology Celtic mythology number distinct subgroups branches Celtic languages Ancient Celtic religion archaeological sources written mythology mythology Goidelic languages represented chiefly Irish mythology shared Scottish Gaelic mythology Mythological CycleUlster CycleFenian CycleCycles Kingsmythology Brittonic languagesWelsh mythologyCornish mythologyBreton mythologyHistorical sourcesVotive Celtic wheels thought correspond cult Taranis Thousands wheels sanctuaries Gallia Belgica dating BCE National Archaeological Museum FranceAs result scarcity surviving materials bearing written Gaulish surmised Celtic writings destroyed Romans written form Gaulish Greek Latin North Italicalphabets evidenced votive items bearing inscriptions Gaulish Coligny calendar Julius Caesar attests literacy Gauls wrote priests druids forbidden writing record verses religious significance Caesar Commentarii Bello Gallico noting Helvetii written census Caesar Bello Gallico Rome introduced widespread habit public inscriptions broke power druids areas conquered fact inscriptions deities discovered Gaul modern France Northern Italy Britain presently Celtic speaking areas post Roman conquest Although early Gaels Ireland parts modern Wales Ogham script record short inscriptions personal names sophisticated literacy introduced Celtic areas conquered Rome advent Christianity Indeed Gaelic myths recorded Christian monks albeit original religious meanings Irish mythologyCuchulainn carries Ferdiad riverThe oldest body myths stemming Heroic Age early medieval period Ireland Christianity began gods goddesses slowly eliminated culture What survived includes material dealing Tuatha Danann Fomorians forms basis text Cath Maige Tuired The Battle Mag Tuireadh portions history focused Lebor Gabála Érenn The Book Invasions The Tuatha represent functions human society kingship crafts war Fomorians represent chaos wild nature The DagdaThe leader gods Irish pantheon appears Dagda The Dagda figure male humans gods based embodied ideal Irish traits Celtic gods considered clan lack specialization unknown origins The character Dagda figure burlesque lampoonery Irish mythology authors conclude trusted benevolent tolerate jokes expense Irish tales depict Dagda figure power armed club Dorset famous outline ithyphallic giant Cerne Abbas Giant club cut chalky soil While produced modern times English Civil War era long thought representation Dagda This called question studies representation large drapery hanging horizontal arm figure leading suspicion figure represents Hercules Heracles skin Nemean lion arm carrying club kill Gaul speculated Dagda Sucellus striker equipped hammer cup The MorríganThe Morrígan tripartite battle goddess Celts Ancient Ireland She Morrígan sections divided referred Nemain Macha Badb common names representing aspects combat She commonly involvement Táin Cúailnge Lugh LugLugh Magic Spear illustration MillarThe god appearing frequently tales Lugh evidently residual earlier widespread god Lugus diffusion Celtic religion apparent number place names appears occurring Celtic The famous cities Lugdunum modern French city Lyon Lugdunum Batavorum Brittenburg kilometers west Leiden Netherlands Lucus Augusti Greek Λοuκος Λuγούστον modern Galician city Lugo Lug Celtic myths list deities Ireland festival called Lughnasadh Irish Lúnasa August held honor OthersOther goddesses include Brigid Brigit Dagda daughter Aibell Áine Macha sovereign goddess Ériu Notable Epona horse goddess celebrated horse races summer festival Significant Irish gods include Nuada Airgetlám king Tuatha Danann Goibniu smith brewer Dian Cecht patron healing sea god Manannán mac Lir Welsh mythologyAn illustration Llŷr swans MillarMain article Welsh mythologyLess pre Christian mythologies Britain Ireland Important reflexes British mythology Four Branches Mabinogi names characters Rhiannon Teyrnon Brân Blessed Bendigeidfran Bran Crow Blessed Other characters likelihood derive mythological sources episodes appearance Arawn king Otherworld seeking aid mortal feuds tale hero killed seemingly contradictory circumstances traced Indo European myth legend The children Llŷr Sea Irish Ler Second Third Branches children Dôn Danu Irish earlier Indo European tradition Fourth Branch major figures tales primary mythology While mythological names references Welsh narrative tradition tale Culhwch Olwen Mabon Modron Divine Son Divine Mother collected Welsh Triads British mythological background reconstruct narrative creation coherent pantheon British deities Indeed common Irish myth unified British mythological tradition Whatever ultimate origins surviving material good service literary masterpieces address cultural concerns Wales early Middle Ages Remnants Gaulish mythologyTaranis Celtic wheel thunderbolt Chatelet Gourzon Haute Marne FranceThe Celts worshiped number deities names Classical writers preserve fragments legends myths Celtic According Syrian rhetorician Lucian Ogmios supposed lead band men chained ears tongue symbol strength eloquence The century Roman poet Lucan mentions gods Taranis Teutates Esus Celtic evidence deities number objets art coins altars depict scenes lost myths representations Tarvos Trigaranus equestrian Jupiter surmounting Anguiped snake legged human figure The Gundestrup cauldron interpreted mythically Along dedications god names deity representations attached Among images headed faced god squatting god god snake god wheel horseman kneeling giant Some images Late Bronze Age peat bogs Britain indicating symbols pre Roman spread Celtic culture The distribution images mapped pattern central concentration image wide scatter indicating images attached specific tribes distributed central point tribal concentration outward lines trade The image headed god central concentration Belgae Oise Marne Moselle rivers The horseman kneeling giant centered Rhine These examples regional preferences common image stock Julius Caesar Celtic religion significanceGolden Celtic wheel symbols Balesme Haute Marne National Archaeological MuseumThe classic entry Celtic gods Gaul Julius Caesar Commentarii Bello Gallico The Gallic War names principal gods worshiped Gaul practice time names closest equivalent Roman gods describes roles Mercury venerated deities numerous representations discovered Mercury originator arts refer Lugus reason supporter adventurers traders mightiest power trade profit Next Gauls revered Apollo Mars Jupiter Minerva Among divinities Celts holding roughly equal views populations Apollo dispels sickness Minerva encourages skills Jupiter governs skies Mars influences warfare addition mentions Gauls traced ancestry Dīs Pater MacBain argues Apollo corresponds Irish Lugh Mercury Manannan mac Lir Jupiter Dagda Mars Net Minerva Brigit Celtic Mythology ZodiacPage