Creation and Life
Myths of Creature, also known as cosmogonic myth, philosophical and theological development in a religious community of a primal myth of Creation. The word myth here relates to the creative story manifestation of what is seen or understood as a fundamental truth (see also myth). The term creation refers to the commencement whether through the will and act of a transcendent being.
The myth of development is a symbolic account of a specific community’s start of the globe. This myth is interpreted later on, in view of future history and community requires. The following teachings of development are Through the Biblical Book Genesis and the New Creation of Jesus Christ all thinking and conjecture about the life of a christian community are thus focused. The creation doctrines are focused on the creation myth, which reflects and embodies every productive opportunity in a specific religious group to reflect on this topic.Creation Life Myths Creature cosmogonic myth philosophical theological development religious community primal myth Creation The word myth relates creative story manifestation understood fundamental truth myth The term creation refers commencement transcendent The myth development symbolic account specific community start globe This myth interpreted view future history community requires The teachings development Through Biblical Book Genesis New Creation Jesus Christ thinking conjecture life christian community focused The creation doctrines focused creation myth reflects embodies productive opportunity specific religious group reflect topic Creation myth called cosmogonic myth philosophical theological elaboration primal myth creation religious community The term myth refers imaginative expression narrative form experienced apprehended basic reality myth The term creation refers transcendent emanation ultimate source The myth creation symbolic narrative understood community The doctrines creation interpretations myth light subsequent history community Thus theology speculation creation Christian community based myth creation biblical book Genesis creation Jesus Christ Doctrines creation based myth creation expresses embodies fertile possibilities thinking subject religious community Myths narratives express basic valuations religious community Myths creation refer process centred definite form reality They serve basis orientation human beings This centring orientation humanity place universe regard humans humans nature entire nonhuman set stylistic tone determine gestures actions structures culture The cosmogonic origin myth myth par excellence sense myth akin philosophy philosophy constitutedby symbols basis subsequent cultural thought rational nonrational forms There order structure myth order structure confused rational philosophical order structure The myth possesses distinctive kind order Myths creation distinctive character provide model nonmythic expression culture model cultural myths sense distinguish cosmogonic myths myths origin cultural techniques artifacts Insofar cosmogonic myth tells story creation myths narrate story specific technique discovery area cultural life models stylistic structure cosmogonic myth These myths etiological explaining origins cosmogonic myth simply etiological deals ultimate origin The cosmogonic myth pervasive structure expression form philosophical theological thought dimension function model cultural life Though cosmogonic myth lead ritual expression ritual dramatic presentation myth Such dramatization performed emphasize permanence efficacy central themes myth integrates undergirds structure meaning culture The ritual dramatization myth liturgy religious community central liturgy attempts create time The origin life abiogenesis chemical evolution Life based long rich molecules DNA RNA instructions making proteins life depends But reading DNA RNA proteins replication DNA RNA cells reproduction mark life depend large suite proteins coded DNA RNA Both DNA RNA proteins time life chicken egg conundrum The materialistic view life natural phenomenon deeply contradicted molecular mechanics article survey progress explanatory theory life based molecular mechanics The main proposition sustainable life irreducibly cellular cell structure irreducibly continuously hierarchical cyclic history dimensional space time One proof proposition lies cell wall primordial cell irreducibly dependent protective cell wall irreducibly hierarchically cyclically structured irreducibly dependent cell contents topological continuity history space time The cell contents argument properties Primordial life astonishingly complex autotrophic Brownian machines exploit thermal noise quantum engineering designed templated assembling substructures intelligently managing exchange ensure rational decision making maintaining homeotic balance face continuously conflicting demands internal external environments Irreducible continuity cell structure function history space time defies naturalistic explanation Only Genesis style fiat creation explain Life astonishing structure function capabilities Most professional scientists origin lies chance combinations aqueous organic chemistry expect exist liquid water universe Organic chemist Addy Pross 2012 book What Life How chemistry biology sophisticated explanation reverse engineering contemporary life imagined evolutionary time But delusion simply affirms author assumed chemical evolution assumes explained cell structure function capability Nobel Prize winning biochemist Christian Duve rare exception acknowledging pervasive obstacles worldview contrast astrobiologist philosopher science Carol Cleland observed life hope explain origin general theory living systems Harvard University Nobel prize winning origin life researcher Jack Szostak concluded cells essential prerequisite question chemicals work cell Like Szostak began worked increasing complexity functionality success decided study transition cellularity building artificial cell However Williams demonstrated primary structure required primordial cell strong cell wall protect destructive thermal energy free water called molecular heat storm This profound consequences article review illustrate life contribute development general theory living systems Thus origin life vexing problem insist life arose purely natural processes physics chemistry Some evolutionists claim origin life evolution However evolutionary biology textbook origin life chapters evolution The University California Berkeley origin life included Evolution titled From Soup Cells Origin Life High profile defenders evolutionary Myers Nick Matzke agree origin life evolution Richard Dawkins evolutionist Kerkut distinction General Theory Evolution GTE included origin life Special Theory Evolution STE dealt diversification life supposed topic Darwin 1859 book defenders evolution divorce origin life consideration hope finding answer rapidly fading scientific discovery sophisticated machinery simplest living cells problem naturalistic origin difficult life break problem origin life number topics attempt explain scientists involved mind stretching What produce living cell living cell capable acquiring resources surroundings reproducing The cell free living depend cells survival cells exist Parasites model life existing cells survive This rules viruses precursors life living cells parasitize reproduce Prions misshaped proteins disease origin life replicate causing proteins manufactured cell misshaped The needed ingredients bit baking cake banana cake bananas flour Getting ingredientsRight major problem chemical soup approaches origin life components location living cell possibility assembled But components life carbonyl chemical groups react destructively amino acids amino NH2 compounds Such carbonyl molecules include sugars form backbone DNA RNA Living cells ways keeping protecting prevent cross reactions repair damage occurs chemical soup facility Cells incredibly complex arrangements simpler chemicals cover chemical cell book cover highlight basic components origin life scenario Amino acidsLiving loaded proteins linear strings amino acids Enzymes special proteins chemical reactions happen catalysts For enzyme amylase secreted saliva starch molecules rice bread potatoes break smaller molecules broken constituent glucose molecules absorb starch absorb glucose power bodies Some reactions life slowly enzymes effectively produce product billions years 5Other proteins form muscles bone skin hair manner structural parts cells bodies Humans produce 000 proteins millions typical bacterium produce Figure Leucine common amino acid specific arrangement atoms carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen Proteins amino acids microbes extra Amino acids simple chemicals easy enzymes composed amino acids Figure The 1953 Miller Urey experiment biology textbook presents managed amino acids enzymes portrayed explaining origin life ignorant deceitful Although tiny amounts amino acids conditions set experiment occurred Earth oxygen atmosphere flask prevented forming Furthermore wrong types amino acids produced chemicals cross react preventing forming The amino acids required functional proteins experiment nature When Stanley Miller repeated experiment 1983 realistic mixture gases trace amounts glycine simplest amino acids needed 7The origin correct mix amino acids remains unsolved problem major problem handedness Figure Glucose linear form SugarsSome sugars chemistry enzymes cells remember However mechanisms making sugars enzymes alkaline environment incompatible amino acid synthesis The chemical reaction proposed formation sugars absence nitrogenous compounds amino acids react formaldehyde intermediate products sugars produce biological chemicals Ribose sugar forms backbone RNA modified form DNA essential living cells problematic unstable sugar short life breaks real neutral acid alkaline The components DNA RNAHow nucleotides chemical letters DNA RNA enzymes living cell The chemical reactions require formaldehyde H2C react hydrogen cyanide However formaldehyde cyanide deadly poisons They destroy critically proteins mighthave formed Figure Cytosine simpler nucleotides DNA RNA form chemical diagram unlabelled bend ring carbon atom bend Cytosine Figure essential nucleotide bases DNA RNA difficult realistic pre biotic scenario unstable LipidsLipids fats essential formation cell membrane cell contents cell functions The cell membrane comprised complex lipids essential free living cell reproduce Lipids higher energy density sugars amino acids formation chemical soup problem origin life scenarios high energy compounds thermodynamically form energy compounds The fatty acids primary component cell membranes difficult produce assuming absence oxygen reducing atmosphere Even molecules produced ions magnesium calcium life charges atom divalent combine fatty acids precipitate making unavailable This process hinders soap essentially fatty acid salt washing hard water precipitation reaction forms scum Figure potassium transport channel The red blue lines position lipid membrane ribbons represent transporter comprises number proteins colours idea complexity loop spirals amino acids Some popularisers abiogenesis draw diagrams showing simple hollow sphere lipid vesicle form conditions test tube However membrane lead living cell cell cell membrane directions Such transport cell entails complex protein lipid complexes transport channels operate electro mechanical pumps They specific chemicals pass cell pump designed water suitable pumping oil Many pumps energy compounds ATP actively drive movement natural gradient Even movement gradient high concentration facilitated carrier proteins The cell membrane enables cell maintain stable enzyme activity favourable concentrations minerals sodium This requires transport channels pumps hydrogen ions protons control cell These pumps highly selective Transport membranes genes genomes encode membrane proteins The smallest genome free living organism parasite Mycoplasma genitalium codes transporters protein coding genes pure lipid membrane passive movement positively charged ions mineral nutrients calcium potassium magnesium iron manganese negatively charged ions phosphate sulfate cell essential life pure lipid membrane repel charged ions dissolve water lipid Indeed simple fat membrane prevent movement water mixing lipid olive oil water Membrane transporters essential viable living cell 1920s idea life began soapy bubbles fat globules popular Oparin coacervate hypothesis pre dated knowledge life entailed terms DNA protein synthesis membranes The ideas naïve extreme airing today YouTube videos showing bubbles lipid dividing relevant explaining origin life Figure The chirality typical amino acids represents carbon hydrogen chain amino acid varies length CH3makes alanine Handedness chirality Amino acids sugars biochemicals dimensional forms mirror images left hand mirror images This called handedness chirality Figure Now living based biochemicals pure terms chirality homochiral left handed amino acids handed sugars Here rub chemistry enzymes Miller Urey experiment produces mixtures amino acids left handed chemical synthesis sugars formate reaction Origin life researchers battled problem sorts potential solutions suggested problem remains unsolved Even purity require totally artificial mechanism nature create doesn cut Life pure left handed amino acids The reason placing handed amino acid protein place left handed protein dimensional shape None tolerated type proteins needed life What minimum requirements cell live minimal free living cell manufacture components chemicals energy surrounding environment reproduce cell membrane This separates cell environment capable maintaining chemical environment cell compared Without life chemical processes storing specifications instructs cell cell operate moment moment The DNA proposals RNA viable changing DNA basis life reading cell components control produced timing production The major components proteins strings polymers hundreds thousands amino acids The conceivable making cell proteins DNA specifications involves proteins complex factors Involved nano machines RNA polymerase smallest type amino acids gyrases twist untwist DNA spiral enable read large proteins ribosomes cellular factories proteins manufactured andat transfer RNA molecules select amino acid order DNA cells amino acids DNA letter code The transfer RNAs sophisticated mechanisms making amino acid selected DNA code There mechanisms proteins folded dimensionally correct involve chaperones protect proteins mis folding chaperonin folding machines proteins helped fold correctly All cells greatly simplified animation protein synthesis includes action RNA polymerase ribosomes transfer RNAs chaperonins chaperones All living cells protein synthesis manufacturing cell biochemical simpler chemicals environment This includes making ATP universal energy currency life All living cells today ATP synthase phenomenally complex efficient electric rotary motor ATP reverse create electric currents drive reactions movement cell copying passing offspring reproduction simulation cell division simplest free living bacterium genes required desktop computers working hours 16This indication happen living cell live interesting project began years ascertain minimal cell operate free living manner dependent living organism However nutrient rich medium wealth complex organic compounds cell synthesize needed biochemicals This minimal cell protein RNA components DNA loaded specifications making That DNA genes Polymer formation polymerisation Life composed amino acids sugars loaded polymers strings chains simpler compounds joined polysaccharide polymer sugars protein polymer amino acids DNA RNA polymers nucleotides Polysaccharides simplest links chain sugar compound glucose making starch plants glycogen animals Proteins complex chains amino acids link chain amino acids And links DNA RNA Now water essential ingredient living cells typical bacteria water Being universal solvent water carrier components cells milieu The origin life matter programming chemistry Here huge problem origin life scenarios amino acids joined water molecule released This presence water reaction pushed wrong direction proteins fall build water actively removed cell overcomes protecting reaction site water ribosomes providing energy drive polymer formation Thus formation proteins amino acids huge problem origin life scenarios adding time solve problem fall Polymer formation requires ingredients monomers joined functional That simply amino acids making proteins sugars making polysaccharides active sites amino acid sugar joined protein forming amino acid amino group NH2 carboxyl group COOH amino group amino acid joining carboxyl group growing chain compound active site mono functional terminate formation chain The problem origin life scenarios proposed chemical reactions produce amino acids produce mono functional terminate protein formation Nucleic acids DNA RNA based sugar polymer backbone Again presence sugars mono functional terminate formation presence water drives reaction wrong direction fall Creating life test tube demonstrate life intelligent input The origin life matter programming chemistryThe sufficient eliminate notions naturalistic origin life covered problem origin programming Life based polymers polymers specific arrangements subunits specific arrangements amino acids functional proteins enzymes specific arrangements nucleic acid bases functional DNA RNA astrobiologist Paul Davies director Beyond Center Fundamental Concepts Science Arizona State University explain life began understand unique management The life manages involves logical structure differs fundamentally mere complex chemistry Therefore chemistry explain life origin study silicon copper plastic explain execute program Davies clarity point surprise fellow evolutionists plain speaking public utterances decade software living cell real mystery hardware And How stupid atoms spontaneously write software Nobody Any attempt explain origin life explaining origin processing recorded DNA living cell avoiding issue simplest free living cell origin insoluble problem scenarios rely physics chemistry intelligent design allowed Sir Karl Popper prominent philosophers science 20th century realized What origin life genetic code disturbing riddle genetic code biological function translated leads synthesis proteins structure laid code But machinery cell primitive cell translates code consists fifty macromolecular components coded DNA macromolecular components needed Thus code translated products translation This constitutes baffling circle vicious circle attempt form model theory genesis genetic code Thus faced possibility origin life origin physics impenetrable barrier science residue attempts reduce biology chemistry physics Origin DNA codeThe coded DNA storage Popper chemistry demands intelligent coding systems Morse code written alphabetical language symbols invented represent sounds speech coded systems intelligence arbitrary convention pronounced cat English shape letter pronounced Likewise conceivable possibility explaining DNA coding laws physics chemistry physical chemical relationship code coded Furthermore origin DNA code big problem DNA code turns millions close global optimum error minimization codes This error minimization code codons amino acids amino acids codon common amino acids leucine These multiple codons called redundant extra needed superfluous However extra codons optimized single letter mistakes mutations coding change amino acid change chemically disruptive structure protein manufactured The extra codons involved sophisticated control protein synthesized translation level control This control operates bacteria higher organisms There coding develop successive stages optimized workable coding existence incredible fluke change basic code thenceforth occur code decoding reading machinery change time minor variations basic code bacteria normal codons codes extra amino acid normal optimized code explained incredible fluke nature supposed life Not coding informationNot origin coded storing explained specifications proteins stored DNA explained Revisiting simplest cell derived knocking genes viable free living microbe essential minimal cell protein RNA components Specifications encoded DNA hypothetical cell manufacture reproduce cell large book print coded letters DNA Paul Davies analogy problem program How explain existence program There programming language Python Fortran Basic Java actual set instructions written language The DNA problem fold origin programming language origin program Proposals simpler evolved simplest cell demonstrate route hypothetical simpler start living cell Enthusiasts abiogenesis appeal billions years hand waving approach solving problems mechanism Reactions wrong direction reverse correct direction adding time Life error correcting systemsMolecular biology revealed cells phenomenally complex sophisticated simplest The stated stored DNA However DNA unstable molecule One report There general belief DNA rock solid extremely stable Brandt Eichman associate professor biological sciences Vanderbilt directed project Actually DNA highly reactive good day bases DNA human cell damaged 27Therefore cells systems correcting faults develop structure DNA coded Without error correcting systems number errors DNA sequence accumulate result demise cell error catastrophe This feature living cells adds impossible origin life scenarios Any happened theoretical DNA molecule primordial soup reproduced accurately lost copying errors chemical damage Without functioning repair mechanism degraded However instructions build repair machinery encoded molecule repairs vicious circle origin life scenarios 28When scientists discovered bacteria live extreme conditions hydrothermal vents sea heralded primitive life origin life researchers proposed life started places However extremophiles called liking extremes sophisticated error correcting systems DNA For Deinococcus radiodurans bacterium withstand extreme doses ionizing radiation kill bacteria sustain DNA damage DNA fractured pieces However genes activated repair breaks reconstruct genome hours damage 29Hydrothermal vents hot inhospitable places DNA microbes live continually damaged microbes sophisticated error protecting correcting systems survive They simple provide sort viable model explaining origin life 30Moreover bacteria extremophiles sophisticated error correcting systems involve genes error correction inactivated mutations bacteria viable This problem origin life creation artificial life morally 2010 staff Craig Venter Institute JCVI reported creation bacterium synthetic genome variant Mycoplasma mycoidesgenome stitched simple chemical building blocks inserted bacterium Mycoplasma species genetic contents removed The result bacterium capable reproducing performing normal bacterial functions Gibson 2010 The JCVI creation reported artificial life doubtful aptly characterised genome cytoplasmic structures synthesised scientists Bedau 2010 However paper committed stance JCVI bacterium constituted artificial life Instead mattered morally Even JCVI scientists create artificial life question future scientists controversy surrounded JCVI creation prompted meeting Presidential Commission Study Bioethical Issues ensuing ethical report 2010 assumed creation artificial life morally article aim cast doubt assumption First offer account create artificial life clarify creation artificial life moral significance articulate evaluate attempts establish creation artificial life morally based concern creation artificial life involves playing God claiming encourage reductionist attitudes life argues artificial organisms uncertain moral status attempts fail Origin life scenariosDid life originate warm pond speculated Darwin deep sea vent clay particles The number scenarios proposed winner suggests major deficiencies major problem warm pond deep sea vent ideas presence water prevents reactions needed polymers Furthermore heat deep sea vents speed breakdown lucky chemical formation Because problems presence water physical chemist origin life researcher Graham Cairns Smith proposed clay surfaces involved facilitating needed reactions However experiments warm volcanic ponds clay particles bind amino acids DNA phosphate essential components life clay prevents reactions occurring 31The origin cell including DNA proteins RNA needed reproduce happen accident chemical soup demonstrated advocates abiogenesis imagine scenarios life began simpler requirements progressed life today Proteins Most effort proteins approach proteins supposedly formed DNA sequences needed proteins RNAs proteins sequences DNA However problem correct set optically pure amino acids problem polymerisation protein chains amino acids proteins templates copies Also fundamental problem mechanism creating DNA sequence protein protein pointed theorist Hubert Yockey 33RNA 1980s RNA molecules discovered ability catalyse chemical reactions dubbed ribozymes ribonucleic acid enzymes This finding stimulated lot excitement lot effort RNA scenarios RNA enzymes generate DNA code RNA code RNA imagine scenario DNA However enzyme complexes DNA copy RNA sequence phenomenally complex natural processes And seemingly insurmountable problems RNA scenarios enumerated Cairns Smith Furthermore RNA stable DNA unstable documented The multiplicity scenarios proposed reinforces conclusion researchers idea life There viable hypothesis life start simpler step wise progress actual living cell Neo Darwinism mutations natural selection invoked climb mount impossible hypothetically viable reproducing entity aka cell minimum requirements set earlier What minimum requirements cell live Life outer space Francis Crick discoverer DNA double helix structure proponent life space proposed aliens life earth directed panspermia Another form idea simply panspermia life arose universe earth microbes meteorites comets Earth seeded life manner Either version panspermia effectively puts matter reach science About element panspermia testable ability microbes survive riding meteorite earth And tested wanting microbes survive 36A lot impetus search extra terrestrial intelligence SETI extra solar planets desire evidence life formed But allowing universe laboratory solve problem life form reinforces Probability calculations origin lifeMany attempts calculate probability formation life chemicals involve making simplifying assumptions origin life probability Mathematician Sir Fred Hoyle stated ways extreme improbability life forming single functional biopolymer protein Hoyle Now imagine 1050 blind persons standing shoulder shoulder entire planetary scrambled Rubik cube conceive chance simultaneously arriving solved form You chance arriving random shuffling biopolymers life depends The notion biopolymers operating program living cell arrived chance primordial soup earth evidently nonsense high order Life plainly cosmic phenomenon 37Indeed calculate probability small protein amino acids length assuming correct amino acids assuming join manner polymerize The number arrangements amino acids probability 10195 Lest protest amino acid exact order small protein proteins needed larger DNA sequence compounding problem Indeed proteins function small alteration sequence 38At time Hoyle argued life outer space Later realized universe laboratory life form unguided intelligent processes physics chemistry The likelihood formation life inanimate matter number 000 naughts big bury Darwin theory evolution There primeval soup planet life random product purposeful intelligence 39Does figure 1040 000 origin life universe impossible purposeful intelligence Can The total number events elementary logical operations occurred universe supposed big bang billion years calculated 10120 MIT researcher Seth Lloyd This sets upper limit number experiments theoretically This limit event probability 1040 000 happen Not small protein amino acids form However biophysicist Harold Morowitz41 probability 1010 000 000 000 This chance minimalist bacterium assembled broth basic building blocks theoretically heating brew living bacteria kill break basic constituents atheist Morowitz argued life result chance posited property energy drives formation entities aka life This sounds idea Gaia attributes pantheistic mystical properties universe More atheist philosopher Thomas Nagel proposed account origin life mind 42Anything supernatural Creator The probabilities calculated difficulty calculating probabilities differing assumptions calculations assumptions favourable abiogenesis result ridiculously improbable powerful argument realistic assumptions result improbable result materialist materialist argue assumptions approach However calculations probability chemical origin life unrealistic assumptions favour happening probability For Morowitz broth ingredients living cell exist chemical components react ways render unavailable forming complex polymers living cell explained The origin life good terms scientific proof existence God High profile theorist Hubert Yockey Berkeley realized problem The origin life chance primeval soup impossible probability perpetual motion machine probability The extremely small probabilities calculated chapter discouraging true believers practical person conclude life didn happen chance 43Note calculations Yockey generously granted raw materials primeval soup But previous chapter book Yockey primeval soup existed belief faith concluded primeval soup paradigm deception based ideology champions Creating artificial lifeThe creation artificial life consist assume creation artificial living entity henceforth artificial organism organism artificial case core elements organism initially constructed chemically simple living components specification person natural rational descended organism pair organisms case sexual creatures constructed There points note definition First require qualify artificial organism kind kind genetically phenotypically existing organism Had JCVI creation genetically phenotypically identical wild type Mycoplasma mycoides artificiality Second JCVI bacterium qualifies artificial definition depend nuclear genome core element bacterium assumption biologists reject crucial developmental homeostatic role played cellular structures cytoplasm membrane Third qualified phrase initially constructed organisms running frequently capable maintaining exerting causal influence internal external environment Saborido Mossio Moreno 2011 Whereas parts rationally designed machines wear organisms typically renew parts death animal artificial created remain artificial life Fourth employ disjunction descended accommodate view reproductive lineage descending artificial organism pair organisms remains artificial perpetuity reflects continuous causal process originates single artificial creation event And finally note definition artificiality cover domesticated plants animals result selective breeding genetically modified organisms GMOs constructed chemically simple living materials Moral significanceSince assess claim creation artificial life morally understand moral significance There ways concept understood capture invoked discussion creation artificial life There thought typically creation artificial life morally fundamentally negative significance case moral reasons create artificial organisms factors weaken moral reasons create specific creation artificial organisms The requirement holding factors bear negatively creation artificial organisms specific practice requires elucidation implies contrasting practices factors apply But contrasting practices The creation artificial organisms naturally contrasted familiar practices organism derived People derive organisms pre existing engaging sexual relations undergoing providing fertility treatments harvesting planting seeds cases instances normal human reproduction organisms satisfy conditions artificiality introduced created chemically simple components created specifications rational agent cases organisms derive existing created specification rational agents envision set desirable organismic properties manipulate living processes achieve approximate This true domesticated plants animals developed selective breeding programs true GMOs organisms generated directed evolution laboratory desirable properties intentionally selected engineered rational engineering principles Malley 2011 Since production organisms specifications rational agents widespread Agricultural Revolution surprising alarmed prospect creating artificial life alarmed created specification aspect artificial organisms difficult explain JCVI creation singled attention plausible assume alarms fact artificial life forms produced specification chemically simple living components This interpretation supported emphasis authors claim creating artificial life ontologically radical mere derivation manipulation living Boldt Müller 2008 point The shift genetic engineering manipulatio synthetic biology creatio shift considerable ethical significance synthetic biology aim amend organism quantity altered characteristics manipulate equip completely unqualified organism quality create form life The ethically relevant contrast artificial life appears derivation organisms life forms irrespective mode derivation carried human specification refine conditions moral significance The creation artificial life moral significance case reasons create artificial organisms factors weaken reasons create reasons factors apply apply equal force derivation life forms existing life forms Similar organisms understood referring organisms possessing genealogical properties Derivation understood describing generation organism modification continuous causal process unbroken chain reproduction cellular mitosis epigenesis cetera extends space time Modifications transmitted continuous casual process include intentional genetic alterations random sexual recombination events The creation minimal bacterium JCVI stands stark contrast derivation life Although JCVI synthetic genome contained minor deviations naturally occurring mycoides genome informational sense derived synthetic genome continuous causal process genetic transmission linking wild type organism derived organism Rather built novo basic biological components inserted cytoplasm species bacteria DNA removed element creatio generation organisms novo authors ethically troublesome relation synthetic biology form basis argument creation artificial life morally develop assess prominent attempts ground moral significance creating artificial life wanting Attempt playing GodAn initial attempt establish moral significance creating artificial life suggested reception popular press JCVI creation common refrain literature Institute staff members playing God Alleyne 2010 McCrae 2010 Savulescu 2010 Concerns playing God raised relation areas life sciences medicine environmental policy concerns developed systematically philosophical literature philosophical treatment Coady 2009 van den Belt 2009 basis treatment delineate variants concern playing God All initial plausibility raised relation creation artificial life overtly religious variant playing God concern maintains putatively worrisome practice involves literally usurping proper role higher god This worry raised context recombinant DNA project emerged 1970s Goodfield 1977 raised regularity response attempts modify organisms genetic engineering Evans 2002 This version playing God concern maintains humans intervene forbidden realms natural consequences interventions fundamentally secular version playing God concern maintains agents engage practice question express objectionably grandiose hubristic attitudes This worry raised relation biomedical technologies enhance normal capacities produce designer children genetic selection modification human embryos Kass 2003 Sandel 2007 argued practices express arrogance drive mastery attitudes capacities children attitudes acceptance gratitude Sandel calls giftedness Since version playing God concern focuses attitudes agent play God consequences sidesteps empirical debates psychological social environmental consequences practice question Buchanan 2011 secular version playing God concern explicitly outcome based maintaining practice intervention question involves overstepping limits human knowledge unwarrantedly risking unintended negative consequences Complex living systems exist optimal delicate equilibrium human intervention disrupt Powell 2010 set theological variant playing God concern focus secular variants plausible creation artificial life cases raise concerns express grandiose hubristic attitudes unwarrantedly risk negative consequences highly doubtful creation artificial life raise concerns For implausible scientist creates artificial life order produce effective pharmaceutical targeted medical treatment harbour grandiose attitudes pose undue risks What context clear secular concerns playing God apply powerfully creation artificial life derivation life Consider risk based variant playing God concern The seriousness concern raised relation production organisms depend level risk posed organism produced But risk organism poses depends etiology causal properties interacts organisms environment Organisms derived dangerous pathogen Bacillus anthracis anthrax dangerous artificial versions benign microbe involved fermentation dairy products There reason suppose organisms causal properties pose risks artificially created point argued understood risk based variant playing God concern narrowly The worry instances creating artificial life invariably pose greater risks derivation life Rather worry creating artificial life type practice greater average maximal risks derivation life Because creatio involves greater degrees freedom manipulatio artificial organisms typically depart radically genetically phenotypically speaking range existing organisms derived organisms And radical departure existing variation higher average maximal levels risk human health environment One reasoning view holds endemic species communities ecosystems high risk ravaged invaders adapted defend compete alien intruders The alien invaders logic endemic species communities naïve prey competitors resist predation competition pressures introduced invaders Because artificial organisms typically alien derived creation typically pose greater risks opposing arguably plausible view risk antagonistic interactions introduced endemic organisms alien introduced organism This strategic evolution characterizing predator prey host parasite dynamics typically requires specialized adaptations evolve prolonged evolutionary contact lineages One reasonable tentative conclusion artificial organisms differ radically existing generally speaking pose lesser risks endemic fauna organisms differ radically natural counterparts radically artificial organisms compete niches naturally existing organisms These evolutionary considerations support scepticism claim artificial organisms typically pose levels risk greater posed derived organisms There reasons sceptical suggestion artificial organisms pose greater maximal risks derived organisms artificial organisms pose extreme risks involve existential threat humanity But true derived organisms Indeed existing organisms smallpox Ebola pose extreme existential risks organisms genetically modified lethal More importantly creation artificial life pose greater average maximal risks derivation life clear moral significance This interpretation risk based playing God concern focuses average maximal level risk type activity poses lacks intuitive appeal original narrower interpretation focuses actual level risk posed activity ends sledgehammer scalpel instance creating artificial life risks negative consequences morally problematic However difficult creation artificial life thought morally problematic cases risks instances creating artificial life commonly risky The plausibility risk based variant playing God concern derives thought moral reasons risk negative consequences thought moral reasons engage practices typically risky One claim epistemic position divine risk individual cases rely average assessment risk But case context derived organisms compare derivation cattle derivation cholera clear case artificial organisms Alternatively claim distinguish higher risk artificial organisms create risk variants facilitating creation higher risk variants Thus assess instance creating artificial life assessing average maximal risks instances creating artificial life facilitate But frequently derive risk organisms contributing derivation high risk unclear situation creation artificial organisms short risk based variant playing God concern forceful understood narrowly understood highly doubtful applies creation artificial life highly doubtful ground claim creation artificial life morally What matters nature life question causal powers derived Similar thoughts apply expressivist variant playing God objection Understood narrowly variant apply powerfully creation artificial organisms derivation organisms express objectionable attitudes But attitudes production organism expresses plausibly depends attitudes creator organism nature organism created reason suppose synthetic biologist creates artificial organisms hold objectionable attitudes molecular biologist modifies existing organism Both scientists driven arrogance grandiose motives scientists motivated desire master nature Perhaps argued motives attitudes unobjectionable scientist seeking modify manipulate existing organisms objectionable scientist seeking create artificial life unclear justify drawing distinction contrast broader interpretation expressivist concern concern applies powerfully creation artificial life derivation life typically objectionable attitudes Moreover clear accept broader interpretation concern instance creating artificial life objectionable attitudes plausible result morally problematic However difficult creation artificial life thought morally problematic objectionable attitudes instances creating artificial life attitudes Like risk based variant playing God concern expressivist variant forceful understood narrowly understood highly doubtful applies creation artificial life highly doubtful ground claim creation artificial life morally Attempt encouraging reductionismIn early paper ethics synthetic biology Mildred Cho collaborators 1999 set ground moral significance creating artificial life They creation artificial life lead widespread acceptance reductionism life life set biochemical components restrictively set genes They worry turn undermine special status living ascribe life The claim knowledge generated practices synthetic biology people longer regard distinction living living But argument distinction marks difference Living possess virtue alive living lack moral reasons bring people assign significance significance moral distinction Thus moral reasons create artificial life concern peculiar creation artificial life Cho collaborators contrast creation artificial life derivation life imagine contrast drawn view creation artificial life difficult sustain belief life kind arrangement interaction chemical building blocks thought difficult explain reliably produced arranging chemical components contrast arguably comparable problem posed demonstration living derived case suppose property transferred ancestral organism descendant organism Reductionism life understood ontological thesis epistemic claim explanation inter theoretic relations Virtually biologists philosophers biology physicalists maintain universe physical supervene roughly determined physical However philosophers biology endorse version reductionist thesis They universally reject notion general biological theories theory natural selection Mendelian genetics reduced physico chemical theories principle They equally sceptical biological explanations refer biological kinds species populations organisms traits cells genes cetera translated explanations cite molecular biological kinds The failure theoretical explanatory reductionism biology symptom human epistemic limitations reflection genuinely hierarchical structure biological Kitcher 1984 forms reductionism fail ontological reductionism false Whether simultaneous commitment physicalism anti reductionism fronts poses conflict biologists philosophers science reconcile scope article discussion Rosenberg Kaplan 2005 What matters purposes creating artificial life demonstrates physico chemical facts biological facts biological properties supervene physical properties version physicalism thesis essentially philosopher science biologist accepts Only vitalist dispute The creation artificial life viewed contradicting vitalism vitalism discredited unscientific empirically unsupported hypothesis long synthetic biology One argue creation artificial life support methodologicalreductionism strategy holding effective investigate properties complex systems decompose lowest level parts Synthetic biology reductionist approach emphasizing rational design principles standardized parts understood properties biobricks But synthetic biologists frequently rely directed evolution tap subtle causal interactions invisible genetic engineers recalcitrant standard engineering manipulation suggesting reductionist approach building organisms specification limited efficacy discussion Lewens issue emergent properties complex systems Bedau 2008 synthetic biology supposed support methodological thesis reductionism showing properties predicted controlled understanding properties parts limited success Even successful clear reductionist scientific methodology implications whatsoever ethics assuming Cho concerned reduction biological properties physico chemical properties However kind reductionism mind For concerned ontological reduction organismic properties geneticproperties virtually biologist accept metaphysical theory relegates organisms traits cells illusory reason immunize genes relegation ontological status gene heavily contested Griffiths Stotz 2006 Neither claim organismic properties identical genetic properties Genes determine organismic properties atomic elements determine physical properties atomic elements And neuronal synchronic mental genetic removed space time identified ultimate effects phenotype mediated patchwork intervening Alternatively Cho collaborators concerned creation artificial life support kind explanatory genetic reductionism phenotypic properties organism causally explained wholly reference organism genes glance success JCVI synthetic genome imply genes controlling causal influence development organismic properties compared cytoplasmic structures host bacteria outfitted synthetic genome The mere fact genes acting causal difference makers case generalize cases traits complex animals rely heavily environmental interaction development More importantly genetic manipulation existing genomes demonstrated causal influence genes equal rigour genetic interventions induce development ectopic organs fruit flies compound eye wing ordinarily For reasons clear synthetic biology offers uniquely powerful demonstration genetic reductionism variations Finally Cho collaborators interpreted maintaining creation artificial life supports abovementioned reductionist theses perceived support For instance suppose case people believed property alive supervened biochemical properties tended life collection biochemical components false extent artificial life demonstrates supervenience relations engender perception ontological reductionism true There problems reasoning First absence empirical evidence people prone draw mistaken inferences sort uncharitable assume Second creation artificial life lead widespread acceptance form reductionism clear undermine special status living ascribe life Cho collaborators fear Douglas Savulescu 2010 Humans beings moral status typically ascribed special grounds alive doubtful bacteria protozoa moral status virtue alive judge wrong killing numerous bacteria lining skin intestine weeds garden flies buzzing windows Rather moral status typically attributed beings virtue mental capacities normal members species possess Typically capacities consciousness experiencing pleasure pain consciousness rationality Since psychological life biological life confer moral status clear acceptance reductionism life impact inclination ascribe status Moreover view alive confers moral status false clear fear creation life false view false view virtually accepts implicitly reject basis sophisticated philosophical theories creation artificial life Thus creation artificial life difference number people hold view Perhaps Cho collaborators concerned acceptance reductionism engender frivolous attitude life people start creating life forms willy nilly children create coloured compounds elementary chemistry sets inconsistent treating life sacred worthy respect Perhaps problematic life forms created lacked moral status alive ordinarily thought demand respect life easily created sexual reproduction radically modified breeding genetic engineering hard synthetic biology raises concerns sort sum clear creation artificial life encourage acceptance version reductionist thesis And clear lead acceptance incorrect views life Attempt argument evolutionary teleologyA attempt establish moral significance creating artificial life draws thought mentioned discussions JCVI creation artificial organisms fit organism artefact dichotomy perceived uncertain ontological status 7The uncertain ontological status artificial life create puzzles biologists metaphysicians clear bear negatively morality creating life forms Boldt Müller 2008 problematic reasons parallel offered Cho collaborators They contend metaphors deployed synthetic biology comparing DNA segments Lego bricks artificial life living machines serve identif organisms artefacts identification connection life long lead weakening society respect higher forms life regarded worthy protection However argued higher forms life ascribed moral status virtue alive virtue possessing mental capacities clear undermining distinction organisms artefacts influence significance assign mental properties Thus alternative marshal worries uncertain status artificial organisms argument moral significance creating artificial life order understand worry uncertain ontological status artificial organisms worry uncertain functional status For uncertain functional status lead uncertain moral status moral status tied interests interests tied functions Many biologists philosophers biology accept ordinary organisms functional status aptly functioning functioning According dominant etiological account function function trait trait selected causally explains proliferation maintenance trait population lineage mechanisms natural selection Neander 1991 account function Evolutionary Teleology Notwithstanding persuasive arguments functional pluralism Amundson Lauder 1994 Evolutionary Teleology remains prevailing approach function biology 8If believes functional status ordinary living depends evolutionary etiology Evolutionary Teleology puzzle arises determine functional status artificial organisms evolve process natural selection created novo specifications rational agents One possibility functional status artificial organism determined functional status living artefacts living artefact plausibly functioning extent realises acts functions conferred rational agents created For function calculator accurately perform mathematical calculations created goal mind However doubtful functional status artificial organism determined Suppose create artificial entity characteristics typical chimpanzee embryo develop embryo entity characteristics typical adult chimpanzee Suppose scientist created artificial chimpanzee sole purpose medical experiments highly doubtful characterize artificial chimpanzee functioning virtue fact good experimental subject docile good model human diseases tempting functional status artificial chimpanzee determined considerations determine functional status artificial chimpanzees However functional status ordinary chimpanzees determined Evolutionary Teleology refers history natural selection phenotypic effects functional status evolved artificial chimpanzee determined precisely Various conclusions drawn problem Neander 1996 One lesson reject extension Evolutionary Teleology artificial beings But arguably lead uncertainty functional status beings claim functional status determined reference closest natural evolved However artificial organisms increasingly evolved life form reference functional status existing organisms surely increasingly irrelevant functional status artificial life Absent determining functional status uncertainty regard Moreover case artificial organism closely resemble natural evolved doubt provenance natural relevant functional status artificial equivalent Even case functional uncertainty Uncertainty functional status artificial moral patients moral significance Suppose accept Aristotelian view command philosophical support Prudential Functionalism organism functioning That good organism function equivalently functioning prudentially valuable Prudential Functionalism correct uncertain functional status artificial organisms imply uncertain interests organism possesses interests view tied functions Now suppose accept view command philosophical support Moral Prudentialism organism interests rise moral protections moral reasons promote protect refrain setting interests Moral Prudentialism correct follow turn uncertain moral protections artificial organisms enjoy moral protections dependent interests interests artificial organisms uncertain uncertain functional status functional uncertainty leads moraluncertainty This moral uncertainty creates risk artificial organisms treated ways morally wrong scope strength moral protections enjoyed organisms underestimated This sort risk familiar domains studied medical animal ethicists For instance arguably uncertain moral protections human embryos foetuses neonates severely cognitively impaired adult humans nonhuman animals enjoy uncertainty creates risk beings treated wrongfully Some argue abortion treatment comatose patients animal farming practices examples wrongful treatment follow underestimation strength breadth moral protections enjoyed organisms Take case agricultural animals cows pigs chickens designed deliberate process selective breeding serve human food resource Perhaps unusually arguably unjustifiably harsh treatment agricultural animals uncertain functional status tied human interests generated solely evolutionary history This explain asymmetrical moral attitudes people hold human treatment wild agricultural animals morally wrong considered create organisms risk wrongful treatment This case human embryos foetuses Though arguably uncertain moral protections entities enjoy arguably creates risk wrongful treatment surely permissible create human embryos foetuses Nevertheless risk entity treated morally wrongful ways weaken case strengthen case creating entity Consider breeding farm animals defensible risk animals treated wrongfully high risk Similarly creation artificial organisms defensible creation organisms functional status uncertain risk wrongful treatment The argument outlined summarized functional status ordinary evolved organisms determined evolutionary origins Evolutionary Teleology functional status organisms ascertained determining possesses traits favoured natural selection ancestors However functional status artificial organisms ascertained functional status uncertain But organisms functioning Prudential Functionalism uncertain interests artificial organisms And interests generate moral protections Moral Prudentialism translates uncertainty moral protections artificial organisms enjoy This turn creates risk artificial organisms treated wrongfully strength breadth moral protections underestimated And finally risk weakens moral case strengthens moral case creating life forms The premises argument henceforth argument evolutionary teleology plausible assessed isolation However conjunction premises plausible acceptance Evolutionary Teleology Prudential Functionalism Moral Prudentialism generates implausible ordinary bacterium evolved organism Evolutionary Teleology functional status Since ordinary bacterium functional status pursuant Prudential Functionalism interests good organism function Moreover Moral Prudentialism interests generate moral protections Thus bacteria simplest forms life enjoy moral protections correct moral reasons promote protect set interests bacteria Most implication unacceptable wildly common sense morality moral reason refrain killing bacteria Indeed central problem biocentric accounts moral status remain open possibility functional status bacteria simple life forms determined Evolutionary Teleology variant But Prudential Functionalism Moral Prudentialismwill rejected order avoid implausible implication simple organisms enjoy moral protections avoid implication proponent argument evolutionary teleology seek restrict scope argument applies higher organisms organisms plausibly enjoy moral protections conscious There main ways First restrict scope Evolutionary Teleology applies evolved organisms evolved higher organisms This maintain organisms possess functional status This theoretically viable alternative result fragmented account organismic function drawing lines unacceptably arbitrary ways standpoint normative biological science Second restrict scope Prudential Functionalism applies higher life forms maintain organisms functional status interests Third restrict scope Moral Prudentialism This accept organisms functions interests deny interests generate moral protections This place defend view amendments amendment constitute concession The restricted variant argument evolutionary teleology longer establish creation simple artificial organisms JCVI bacterium morally succeed establishing moral significance creating higher artificial organisms problem uncertain moral protections Nevertheless interesting conclusion addition argument creation simple artificial organisms count morally morally interesting indirect ominous sign creation higher artificial organisms But suitably restricted variant argument teleology succeed demonstrating moral significance creating higher artificial organisms There reasons First restricted form argument implausible implications Since assigns moral protections higher beings avoids problem scope implying range organisms covered moral protections wide However implausible implications content moral protections ascribe Take case humans According restricted argument evolutionary teleology humans enjoy moral protections derive ultimately process evolved They functioning extent exhibit traits favoured natural selection evolution human ancestors They possessing traits moral reasons promote protect set development maintenance traits But plausible evolutionarily functions human brain include generation xenophobic psychological dispositions These dispositions hostility groups characteristic humans wide range cultural environments favoured evolutionary periods intense ecological competition human groups The restricted argument evolutionary teleology implies moral reasons protect promote refrain setting development maintenance xenophobic tendencies This implausible The restricted variant argument evolutionary teleology implausible implications content interests ascribes higher beings For implies brain dead individual body sustained life support rejected support Maintaining body brain dead individual preserves functioning functions determined Evolutionary Teleology difficult accept brain dead individual continued existence individual wished maintained Not argument evolutionary teleology imply organisms possess interests enjoy moral protections intuitively possess enjoy interests protections implausibly contingent facts evolutionary etiology organism Consider swamp person ordinary person genealogical properties arisen chance primordial soup history selection confer etiological biological functions doubtful discovering thought ordinary person fact swamp person change views interests moral protections person possesses Likewise synthetic biologists manage construct human embryo scratch developed human person person intuitively entitled rights privileges person curious origin What matters origin mental capacity The restricted argument evolutionary teleology counter intuitive implications moral protections higher organisms enjoy determines existence protections addition implausible implications reason doubt argument teleology general restricted form establishes moral significance creating artificial organisms concerns playing God clear argument specific artificial life According general restricted versions argument evolutionary teleology problem creating higher artificial organisms unclear moral protections enjoy risk treated wrongfully This problem arises argument artificial organisms evolved result functional status determined Evolutionary Teleology unclear determines functional status However organisms derived existing genetic modification radically chimerization straightforwardly products natural selection The final steps creation genetically modified chimeric entities alterations brought intentionally rational agents Thus uncertain functional status hand functional status derived organisms determined considerations determine functional status living artefacts fulfil purposes rational agents designed unattractive implications sort suggested hand functional status derived organisms determined considerations evolutionary For organism functioning case possesses traits favoured natural selection evolution proximate fully evolved ancestor Alternatively functional status derived organisms determined mixture evolutionary considerations facts purposes agents create reasonable lesson draw discussion Evolutionary Teleology determines functional status natural evolved organisms functional status organisms derived traditional genetic engineering practices organisms created artificially uncertain concerns creating beings uncertain functional status specific creation artificial organisms Indeed apply equally powerfully production organisms higher organisms wholly product undirected evolution functional status straightforwardly determined Evolutionary Teleology argued functional status natural evolved organisms determined Evolutionary Teleology reason deny functional status determines moral status implausible moral protections enjoyed organisms determined evolutionary genealogy What matters moral status organism genealogical properties mental capacities argued evolutionary genealogy relevant moral status uncertainty moral status evolved creatures apply derived organisms artificial ConclusionWe developed evaluated attempts establish creation artificial life morally These appealed concerns playing God possibility creation beings encourages reductionism undermines special status accorded life thought artificial life forms uncertain functional status uncertain moral status argued attempts succeeds establishing moral significance creating artificial life follow creation artificial life morally insignificant establishing significance missed However attempts considered constitute charitable ways understanding prominent arguments moral significance artificial life left view creation artificial life morally shakier ground Though argued view capacity create kinds life naturally exist raise deep moral issues interests beings moral status risks pose beings However view matters answering questions life created genealogical properties Creation Life ZodiacPage