Hindu mythology is narrative of the Hindu texts of Vedic literature, of the Mahabharata and Ramayana, of the Puranas, of national literatures such as Periya Puranam. In common textbooks such as the Panchatantra and Hitopadesha and Southeastern Asian, Hindu mythology is also commonly converted. Hindu mythology often has a monolithic, coherent framework.
Hindu mythology contains many narratives. Some have demonstrated to be particularly persistent and central to a Hindu comprehension. These include the stories outlined in the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.
Hindu epic shares the human values and artistic principles discovered throughout the epics. The specific details however differ and, according to Doniger, their variety is enormous. The Hindu legends embrace India by an interwoven contrast between characters, between good and evil, honest against the dishonest, a dharma lover against the antidharma bully, gentle and compassionat against the cruel and gullible. The Indian thinking about the nature of existence, the human condition, his aspiration. In these epics, all matters, love and peace are impermanent. Magic and wonders flourish, gods are beaten, and they are afraid of their lives. Threat of DeathHindu Mythology Hindu mythology narrative Hindu texts Vedic literature Mahabharata Ramayana Puranas national literatures Periya Puranam common textbooks Panchatantra Hitopadesha Southeastern Asian Hindu mythology commonly converted Hindu mythology monolithic coherent framework Hindu mythology narratives Some demonstrated persistent central Hindu comprehension These include stories outlined Mahabharata Ramayana Hindu epic shares human values artistic principles discovered epics The specific details differ Doniger variety enormous The Hindu legends embrace India interwoven contrast characters good evil honest dishonest dharma lover antidharma bully gentle compassionat cruel gullible The Indian thinking nature existence human condition aspiration epics matters love peace impermanent Magic wonders flourish gods beaten afraid lives Threat Death Hindu mythology narratives Hindu texts Vedic literature epics Mahabharata Ramayana Puranas regional literatures Periya Puranam Hindu mythology translated popular texts Panchatantra Hitopadesha Southeast Asian texts Hindu mythology consistent monolithic structure The myth typically appears versions represented differently socio religious traditions These myths modified philosophical schools time Hindu tradition These myths deeper symbolic meaning complex range interpretations The Hindu Epic literature genre Hindu texts Vedic literature 1500 BCE EpicsPuranasVedasMany legends evolve texts character names change story embellished greater details central message moral values remain According Wendy Doniger Every Hindu epic Hindu epics alike Each Hindu epic celebrates belief universe boundlessly occurs simultaneously possibilities exist excluding There single basic version Hindu epic told retold number minor major variations years Great epics richly ambiguous elusive truths filed scholar neat categories Moreover epics Hinduism living organisms change constantly FlahertyHindu epic shares creative principles human values epic However details vary diversity immense Doniger The Hindu legends embed Indian thought nature existence human condition aspirations interwoven contrast characters good evil honest dishonest dharma bound lover anti dharma bully gentle compassionate cruel greedy epics impermanent including matter love peace Magic miracles thrive gods defeated fear existence triggering wars debates Death threatens threatens life life finds creatively emerge conquering death Eros persistently prevails chaos The Hindu epics integrate wide range subjects They include stories cosmos originated Hindu cosmology cosmogony humans life forms originated anthropogony strengths weaknesses gods originated strengths weaknesses theogony battle good gods bad demons theomachy human values humans live resolve disagreements ethics axiology healthy goals stages life ways individual live householder monk purusartha meaning existence personal liberation soteriology legends suffering chaos time restart cycle eschatology DashavataraA collection Vaishnavism traditional reincarnations includes avatars Vishnu The common include Matsya narrates great flood ancient cultures The savior Matsya fish The earliest accounts Matsya mythology Vedic literature equate fish saviour deity Prajapati The fish savior merges identity Brahma post Vedic era avatar Vishnu The legends Matsya expand evolve vary Hindu texts These legends embedded symbolism small fish Manu protection grows big fish fish ultimately saves earthly existence Kurma The earliest account Kurma Shatapatha Brahmana Yajur veda form Prajapati Brahma helps samudra manthan churning cosmic ocean Epics Puranas legend expands evolves versions Kurma avatar Vishnu appears form tortoise turtle support foundation cosmos cosmic churning stick Mount Mandara Varaha The earliest versions Varaha boar legend Taittiriya Aranyaka Shatapatha Brahmana Vedic texts They narrate universe primordial waters The earth size hand trapped The god Prajapati Brahma form boar varaha plunges waters brings earth post Vedic literature Puranas boar mythology reformulated avatar god Vishnu evil demon named Hiranyaksha persecutes people kidnaps goddess earth Varaha Vishnu fights injustice kills demon rescues earth Narasimha The Narasimha mythology man lion avatar Vishnu destroys evil king Hiranyakashyapu ends religious persecution calamity Earth saves devotee Prahlad suffering caused torments punishments pursuing religious beliefs Vishnu restores Dharma VamanaParashuramaRamaKrishnaBalaramaKalki Around 1700B peoples area northwest India began migrating India Called Aryansor Indo Europeans brought mythic tradition basis early form Hinduism Over years Aryans mingled peoples cultures Indian subcontinent mythology grew increasingly complex Stages Sources Hinduism stages linked texts surviving period The earliest stage Vedas oldest Indian documents One Rig Veda collection 028 hymns praise prayers gods references myths The Vedas based ancient Aryan traditions long communicated oral form epic long poem legendary historical heroes written grand styleThe group texts Brahmanas 900 700B Though concerned rituals Hinduism Brahmanas myths The Upanishads written 700B focus ideas communicate myths The great Hindu epics Mahabharata Ramayana written 300B andA stories number major deities After time chief expression Hindu mythologyand religion texts called Puranas stories days Most stories devoted god The Puranas retell earlier myths voices gods Themes Certain key beliefs Hinduism form background myths unfold One idea reincarnation called transmigration souls Hindu belief soul experiences lives After death body incarnation soul born living body Even gods reincarnated human form Just individual soul continually reborn universe continually created destroyed Time moves cycles millions years endlessly building tearing All change decay divinely directed cosmic dance eventually result renewal Faced immense pattern individual duty follow pattern behavior called dharma Major FiguresHindu mythology populated enormous cast deities demons demigods humans animals Some central role era remain background periods risen obscurity prominence The attributes histories mythological characters changed considerably centuries Hinduism existed deity god goddesscosmic large universal scale universedemigod human godattribute quality property power thingpantheon gods cultureBrahma creator life earth Trimurti gods center Hindu pantheon Shiva Vishnu early Vedic texts creator god Prajapati time Brahma older god place myths creation universe Hindu Deities Deity Role Brahmacreator god Deviwife Shiva goddess takes forms kind fierce Ganeshagod good fortune wisdom Indragod storms rain Shiva avenging destroying god Varuna originally creator god ruler sky god water Vishnu preserver god protector life Vishnu member Trimurti preserver protector life His attributes mercy goodness Some Hindus regard Vishnu supreme Brahma Shiva aspects Shiva descended Vedic storm god Rudra member Trimurti avenging destroying god destruction creation Sometimes Shiva portrayed dancer directs movements universe Devi goddess ancient deities pantheon Under grouped female deities represent aspects Devi Among Parvati wife Shiva Durga warrior goddess fighter demons ferocious Kali dark fights demons intoxicated blood destruction The popular elephant headed handed god Ganesha Parvati son One popular gods Hinduism today good luck wisdom Indra god storm rain deities Rig Veda represented warrior chieftains ancestral Aryan peoples Vedic hymns Indra replaced Varuna guardian justice order king gods mythology Hinduism developed Indra turn moved secondary status Trimurti Krishna incarnations avatars Vishnu appears Mahabharata Puranas Many stories focus prankish playful nature love affairs Manu son Brahma god man ancestor human race According myth small fish warns Manu earth destroyed great flood Manu takes care fish incarnation Vishnu grown saves flood repopulate earth The heroine Savitri story told Mahabharata symbolizes love defeats death She persuades Yama lord death release husband death Core MythsHindu mythology includes huge number stories Some proved enduring central understanding Hinduism Among tales told Mahabharata Ramayana Shiva SacrificeThe Mahabharata tells Daksha Shiva father law held ceremony horse sacrifice gods All gods Shiva invited Angry excluded Shiva attacked ceremony servants They threw blood ate priests drop sweat Shiva brow fell earth formed Disease ugly figure terrified gods Brahma promised Shiva future sacrifices return Shiva turned Disease small ailments trouble animals humans incarnationa ppearance god spirit soul earthly formprimal earliest existing thingsCreation Hindu mythology includes accounts version creation arranging producing order chaos Vedic texts sacrifice aprimalbeing called Purusha cut body elements universe Another image creation fertilization pregnancy occurs myths Prajapati father humans animals SometimesThis illustration major Hindu gods Brahma creator life Vishnu protector life Shiva god destruction heaven earth parents mating produces gods Myths Tvashtar minor Vedic god carpentryor architecture explain creation building Hinduism developed Trimurti gained complex vision creation destruction recreation universe emerged Brahma brings universe thoughts The passes Maha Yuga great age lasts 000 years The Maha Yuga yugas ages Each shorter immoral Krita Yuga Brahma golden age intermediate ages Vishnu protection Kali Yuga Shiva dark age Each dark age turn golden age cycle Maha Yuga repeats times Then Shiva destroys life scorching heat drowning flood earth remains Vishnu sleeps After Maha Yugas lotus flower emerges Vishnu navel Brahma ready perform creative anew The Avatars Vishnu Many myths deal Vishnu avatars incarnations god earth The common list avatars Matsya fish protects Manu flood The avatar Kurma tortoise holds Mount Mandara gods paddle churn ocean produce drink eternal life Varaha boar appears demon giant pulls earth ocean incarnation Varaha defeats demon raises earth tusks Narasinha fourth avatar man lion defeats demon killed man beast The dwarf Vamana incarnation triumphs Bali gained control When Bali grants Vamana land cover strides dwarf giant strides heaven earth The sixth avatar wielding Parashurama frees priests domination warriors This drawing illustrates Hindu creation myth The tortoise supports elephants hold encircled serpent The seventh incarnation Rama hero Ramayana The eighth god Krishna ninth Buddha Hindus Buddha earth draw people proper worship Vedas decline destroyed cosmic cycle demands The tenth avatar Kalki preside destruction creation pure The Birth Ganes Shiva wife Parvati produced Ganesha Shiva accounts Some Shiva immortal desire son Parvati wanted child produced boy body versions Shiva Parvati doll touch magically life baby According story Shiva struck boy head Ganesha prevented approaching Parvati Shiva believed son doomed die Parvati grief moved replace head finally succeeded attaching elephant head boy body Indra Serpent Legends slaying serpent dragonappear cultures Hindu mythology story centers god Indra footless handless demon Vritra snake dragon The tale told Vedas dates time Indra king gods immortal live foreverUsing divine thunderbolt Indra struck Vritra shoulders slicing open mountain Vritra lay The blow separated heaven earth land water The waters Vritra contained flowed bring life Indra heroic victory champion struggled overcome obstacles resistance Modern LegacyHindu belief mythology color aspect life culture India They basis countless works art plays Rama written 700s modern Indian movies based mythic stories Temples images deities Festivals day autumn celebration Rama wife Sita traditional gods heroes myths alive Even place names sacred associations The city Calcutta Kalighat place sacrifices goddess Kali place Besides inspiring generations Indian artists thinkers Hindu mythology appealed West Ralph Waldo Emerson American writer 1800s wroteBrahma poem celebrating creator god era English speaking readers familiar legends Savitri Edwin Arnold poem Savitri Love Death poem German writer Goethe called The God Bayadere dancing girl deals appearance earth god Shiva English composer Gustav Holstwrote chamber opera meant sung acted small orchestra called Savitri Holst translated hymns theRig Vedainto English wrote music accompany These sets songs grouped title Choral Hymns Bertram Shapleigh American composer wroteVedic Hymn based text theRig Veda piece orchestral music calledRamayana 1989 filmof Mahabharata written Jean Claude Carrière directed Peter Brook brought ancient epic modern movie audiences Hindu Mythology ZodiacPage