Myth-ritual theory

Two key aspects of spiritual exercise, myth and ritual. Although the myth and ritual are frequently united as religious components, there was dispute among academics over the precise connection between them. One approach to this problem is the myth and the ritualist theory of myths, which is held in particular by the so-called ritualists of Cambridge, which argues that “religion doesn’t stand by itself, but is linked to ritual” (Myth does not stand by itself but remains linked to the rituals), and which is controversial.

“Myth and Ritual School” was the title of a sequence of writers who concentrated on the “ritual purpose” of mythic research and who endorsed a “primacy of ritual,” which asserted that “every myth originated from a specific ritual and syntagmatic quality” “This” mythological school” “myth and religion “is the title provided to a sequence of writers who focussed their philological research on the” ritual reasons of myths.

Myth ritual theory Two key aspects spiritual exercise myth ritual Although myth ritual frequently united religious components dispute academics precise connection One approach problem myth ritualist theory myths held called ritualists Cambridge argues religion doesn stand linked ritual Myth stand remains linked rituals controversial Myth Ritual School title sequence writers concentrated ritual purpose mythic endorsed primacy ritual asserted myth originated specific ritual syntagmatic quality This mythological school myth religion title sequence writers focussed philological ritual reasons myths Myth ritual central components religious practice Although myth ritual commonly united parts religion exact relationship matter controversy scholars One approaches problem myth ritual myth ritualist theory held notably called Cambridge Ritualists holds myth stand tied ritual This theory disputed scholars myth ritual share common paradigms developed The myth ritual school series authors focused philological studies ritual purposes myths Some scholars Robertson Smith James George Frazer Jane Ellen Harrison Hooke supported primacy ritual hypothesis claimed myth derived ritual syntagmatic quality myth reproduction succession ritual Historically approaches study mythological thinking Vico Schelling Schiller Jung Freud Lucien Lévy Bruhl Lévi Strauss Frye Soviet school Myth Ritual School 1930s Soviet researchers Jakov Golosovker Frank Kamenecky Olga Freidenberg Mikhail Bakhtin grounded study myth ritual folklore view popular culture Following World War semantic study myth ritual Bill Stanner Victor Turner supported connection myth ritual However supported notion preceded produced supporters primacy ritual hypothesis claim According dominant scholarly view link myth ritual share common paradigms Ritual mythOne possibility presents ritual arose myth Many religious rituals notably Passover Jews Christmas Easter Christians Hajj Muslims commemorate involve commemoration events religious literature TylorLeaving sphere historical religions ritual myth approach sees relationship myth ritual analogous relationship science technology The pioneering anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor classic exponent view myth attempt explain myth sort proto science Ritual secondary technology application science ritual application myth attempt produce effects supposed nature For Tylor myth functions explain Ritual applies explanation control ritual presupposes preexisting myth short myth rise ritual Myth ritual primacy ritual Against intuitive idea ritual reenacts myth applies mythical theories 19th century anthropologists supported position myth religious doctrine result ritual This primacy ritual hypothesis William Robertson SmithThis view asserted time bible scholar William Robertson Smith The scholar Meletinsky notes Smith introduced concept dogmatically Lectures Religion Semites 1889 Smith draws distinction ancient modern religion modern religion doctrine central ancient religion ritual central Smith argues ancients tended conservative regard rituals making pass faithfully contrast myths justified rituals change fact Smith myths arose original nonmythic reason ritual forgotten Smith worship Adonis Worshipers mourned Adonis mythical death ritual coincided annual withering vegetation According Smith ritual mourning originally nonmythical explanation annual withering plants worshippers lament natural sympathy modern man touched melancholy falling autumn leaves Once worshipers forgot original nonmythical reason mourning ritual created myth Adonis dying rising god vegetation account ritual Stanley Edgar HymanIn essay The Ritual View Myth Mythic 1955 Stanley Edgar Hyman argument Smith Fiji physical peculiarities island small patch fertile soil explained myth telling Mberewalaki culture hero flew passion misbehavior people island hurled soil bringing heap laying properly Hocart points myth aetiologically explain nature island originate attempt The adventures Mberewalaki originated mythology ritual performance lore Hocart Fijian informants consisted ritual myths When interested topology island asked Hocart argues precisely ransack lore answer Here Hyman argues etiological interpretation myth myths originated attempts explain origins etiologies natural phenomena true etiological interpretation myth older independent ritual Tylor believes But Hyman argues people myth etiological purposes myth place short myths didn originate explanations natural phenomena Further Hyman argues myth originated ritual performance Thus ritual myth myth depends ritual existence gains independent status etiological story James FrazerThe famous anthropologist Sir James George Frazer claimed myth emerges ritual natural process religious evolution Many ideas inspired Robertson Smith The Golden Bough 1890 1906 1915 Frazer famously argues man progresses belief magic rituals based magic belief religion science His argument Man starts reflexive belief natural law thinks influence nature correctly applying law magic man depends strength meet difficulties dangers beset believes established order nature surely count manipulate ends However natural law man imagines magic work When sees pretended natural law false man idea knowable natural law throws humbly mercy great invisible beings veil nature ascribes reaching powers arrogated man loses belief magic justifies magical rituals reenact myths honor mythical beings According Frazer myth custom remains constant men continue fathers reasons fathers acted long forgotten The history religion long attempt reconcile custom reason sound theory absurd practice Jane Ellen Harrison HookeThe classicist Jane Ellen Harrison biblical scholar Hooke regarded myth intimately connected ritual However Smith vigorously deny myth main purpose justify ritual account arose justifying Adonis worshipers ritual mourning attributing Adonis mythical death Instead scholars myth narrative description ritual Harrison primary meaning myth spoken correlative acted rite Harrison Hooke explanation ancients feel ritual narrative form They spoken word acted ritual considered magical potency The spoken word efficacy Like Frazer Harrison believed myths initial reason ritual forgotten diluted cited rituals center annual renewal vegetation Such rituals involve participant undergoes staged death resurrection Harrison argues ritual performed annually exclusively initiatory performed people initiate roles standing members society early point god simply projection euphoria produced ritual Later euphoria personified distinct god god god vegetation initiates symbolically died reborn fully fledged members society god vegetation turn crops literally died reborn time people forgot ritual initiatory function remembered status commemoration Adonis myth Myth ritual coextensiveNot students mythology ritual emerged myth myth emerged ritual myths rituals greater degree freedom Although myths rituals scholars myth ritual vice versa Walter BurkertThe classicist Walter Burkert believes myths rituals originally independent When myths rituals argues reinforce myth tells gods established ritual reinforces ritual divine status gods ritual based mythical event story event mere myth myth narrates event imitation considered sacred Furthermore Burkert argues myth ritual serve socializing function Burkert hunting rituals Hunting Burkert argues sacred ritualistic aura ceased survival Hunting lost basic function emergence agriculture years But hunting ritual performing ritual hunting ancient society bonded group members vent anxieties aggressiveness mortality Bronisław MalinowskiLike William Smith anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski argued essay Myth Primitive Psychology 1926 myths function fictitious accounts origin rituals providing justification rituals myth rituals hoary sanctions However Malinowski points cultural practices ritual myths Malinowski myth ritual coextensive myths outgrowths ritual rituals outgrowths myth Mircea EliadeLike Malinowski religious scholar Mircea Eliade thinks function myth provide explanation ritual Eliade notes societies rituals considered precisely established mythical gods heroes Eliade approvingly quotes Malinowski claim myth narrative resurrection primeval reality Eliade adds Because myth relates gesta deeds Supernatural Beings exemplary model human actions Traditional man sees mythical figures models imitated Therefore societies claim rituals established mythical figures making rituals However Malinowski Eliade notes societies myths sanction kinds activities rituals For myth ritual coextensive Eliade Malinowski explanation myth confer ritual Eliade ritually enacted myth acts time machine carrying time myth bringing closer god But Eliade myth ritual coextensive return mythical age achieved simply retelling myth ritual reenactment According Eliade traditional man sees myths rituals vehicles eternal return mythical age Eternal return Eliade imitating exemplary acts god mythic hero simply recounting adventures man archaic society detaches profane time magically enters Great Time sacred time Recital myths enactment rituals serve common purpose remain sacred time Myth ritual theory ZodiacPage

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