Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied conduct analysis (ABA) is a scientific discipline that focuses on the application of methods centered on the values of teaching how to modify socially relevant behaviour. The two other types are radical behaviouralism (or scientific theory) and experimental behavioral evaluation (or fundamental educational study).
The “applied behavioral assessment” title replaced behavioral changes, because the latter strategy indicated that the behavioral relationships were changed without clarification. In comparison, ABA attempts to alter the conduct by first evaluating the functional connection between a specific conduct and the workplace. In addition, the strategy is often aimed at social developmentApplied Behavior Analysis Applied conduct analysis ABA scientific discipline focuses application methods centered values teaching modify socially relevant behaviour The types radical behaviouralism scientific theory experimental behavioral evaluation fundamental educational study The applied behavioral assessment title replaced behavioral strategy behavioral relationships changed clarification comparison ABA attempts alter conduct evaluating functional connection specific conduct workplace addition strategy aimed social development Applied behavior analysis ABA scientific discipline concerned applying techniques based principles learning change behavior social significance applied form behavior analysis forms radical behaviorism philosophy science experimental analysis behavior basic experimental The applied behavior analysis replaced behavior modification approach suggested attempting change behavior clarifying relevant behavior environment interactions contrast ABA change behavior assessing functional relationship targeted behavior environment Further approach seeks develop socially acceptable alternatives aberrant behaviors ABA brought bear wide range areas behavioral problems Examples include early intensive behavioral interventions children autism spectrum disorder ASD principles influencing criminal behavior HIV prevention conservation natural resources education gerontology health exercise industrial safety language acquisition littering medical procedures parenting psychotherapy seatbelt severe mental disorders sports substance abuse phobias pediatric feeding disorders zoo management care animals ABA applied science devoted developing procedures produce observable behavior distinguished experimental analysis behavior focuses basic experimental principles developed operant conditioning classical conditioning Behavior analysis adopts viewpoint radical behaviorism treating thoughts emotions covert activity behavior subject rules overt responses This represents shift methodological behaviorism restricts behavior change procedures behaviors overt conceptual underpinning behavior modification Behavior analysts emphasize science behavior natural science opposed social science behavior analysts focus observable relationship behavior environment including antecedents consequences resort hypothetical constructs The ABA traced Teodoro Ayllon Jack Michael study The psychiatric nurse behavioral engineer 1959 submitted Journal Experimental Analysis Behavior JEAB doctoral dissertation University Houston Ayllon Michael training staff nurses psychiatric hospital token economy based principles operant conditioning behavioral engineering synonym ABA called behavior modification patients adults schizophrenia mentally retarded children This paper served basis founding Journal Applied Behavior Analysis JABA publishes application behavior analysis wide array socially relevant behavior group faculty researchers University Washington including Donald Baer Sidney Bijou Bill Hopkins Jay Birnbrauer Todd Risley Montrose Wolf applied principles behavior analysis instruct developmentally disabled children manage behavior children adolescents juvenile detention centers organize employees required proper structure management businesses situations 1968 Baer Bijou Risley Birnbrauer Wolf James Sherman joined Department Human Development Family Life University Kansas founded Journal Applied Behavior Analysis Notable graduate students University Washington include Robert Wahler James Sherman Ivar Lovaas Lovaas established UCLA Young Autism Project teaching University California Los Angeles devoted century groundbreaking practice aimed improving lives children autism families 1965 Lovaas published series articles outlined coding observed behaviors pioneering investigation antecedents consequences maintained problem behavior relied methods errorless learning initially devised Charles Ferster teach nonverbal children speak Lovaas social secondary reinforcers teach children imitate interventions including electric shocks reduce aggression life threatening injury 1987 Lovaas published landmark study Behavioral Treatment Normal Educational Intellectual Functioning Young Autistic Children The experimental group study received hours week teaching setting errorless discrete trial training DTT The treatment parents involved aspect treatment curriculum highly individualized heavy emphasis teaching eye contact language ABA principles motivate learning reduce desired behaviors The outcome study experimental group lose autism diagnosis indistinguishable typical adolescent peers This included passing regular education assistance making maintaining friends sufficient adults These gains maintained reported 1993 study Long Term Outcome Children With Autism Who Received Early Intensive Behavioral Treatment Lovaas work recognized Surgeon General 1999 outcomes replicated university private settings The Lovaas Method early intensive behavioral intervention EIBI DTT hours week Over years behavior analysis gradually superseded behavior modification simply alter problematic behavior behavior analysts sought understand function behavior antecedents promote maintain replaced successful behavior This analysis based careful initial assessment behavior function testing methods produce behavior While ABA intrinsically linked autism intervention broad range situations Recent notable areas JABA include autism classroom instruction typically developing students pediatric feeding therapy substance disorders Other applications ABA include applied animal behavior behavioral economics behavioral medicine behavioral neuroscience clinical behavior analysis forensic behavior analysis increasing job safety performance schoolwide positive behavior support systematic desensitization phobias CharacteristicsBaer Wolf Risley 1968 article standard description ABA lists characteristics ABA Applied ABA focuses social significance behavior studied For applied researcher study eating behavior helps clarify metabolic processes applied researcher study eating behavior individuals eat change behavior acceptable persons involved Behavioral ABA pragmatic asks individual effectively answer question behavior objectively measured Verbal descriptions treated behavior substitutes behavior Analytic Behavior analysis successful analyst understands manipulate events control target behavior This easy lab researcher arrange relevant events easy ethical applied situation Baer outline methods applied settings demonstrate control maintaining ethical standards These reversal design multiple baseline design reversal design experimenter measures behavior choice introduces intervention measures behavior Then intervention removed reduced behavior measured The intervention effective extent behavior response manipulations The multiple baseline method behaviors irreversible Here behaviors measured intervention applied turn The effectiveness intervention revealed behavior intervention applied Technological The description analytic clear detailed competent researcher repeat accurately Cooper good check Have person trained applied behavior analysis read description procedure person mistakes questions description improvement Conceptually Systematic Behavior analysis simply produce list effective interventions Rather extent methods grounded behavioral principles This aided theoretically meaningful terms secondary reinforcement errorless discrimination Effective Though analytic methods theoretically grounded effective intervention produce large practical analysis failedGenerality Behavior analysts aim interventions generally applicable methods work environments apply specific behavior long lasting effects Other proposed characteristicsIn 2005 Heward suggested characteristics Accountable accountable ABA demonstrate methods effective This requires repeatedly measuring success interventions making improve effectiveness Public The methods theoretical analyses ABA published open scrutiny There hidden treatments mystical metaphysical explanations Doable generally interventions variety individuals teachers parents therapists modify behavior With proper planning training interventions applied invest effort Empowering ABA tools practitioner feedback interventions These clinicians assess skill level build confidence effectiveness Optimistic According leading authors behavior analysts optimistic efforts socially worthwhile reasons The behaviors impacted behavior analysis determined learning controlled manipulable aspects environment Practitioners improve performance direct continuous measurements practitioner behavioral techniques positive outcomes confident future success The literature examples success teaching individuals considered unteachable ConceptsBehaviorBehavior refers movement organism aspect environment Often term behavior refers class responses share physical dimensions functions case response single instance behavior group responses function group called response class Repertoire refers responses individual term refer responses relevant situation refer person Operant conditioningOperant behavior called voluntary behavior sensitive controlled consequences Specifically operant conditioning refers term contingency stimulus control antecedent contingency called discriminative stimulus influences strengthening weakening behavior consequences reinforcement punishment The term generally reaching candy bar turning heat escape aversive chill studying exam good grades Respondent classical conditioningRespondent classical conditioning based innate stimulus response relationships called reflexes famous experiments dogs Pavlov salivary reflex salivation unconditioned response taste food unconditioned stimulus Pairing neutral stimulus bell conditioned stimulus food caused bell elicit salivation conditioned response Thus classical conditioning conditioned stimulus signal biologically consequence Note respondent conditioning operant conditioning response produce reinforcer punisher dog food salivates EnvironmentThe environment entire constellation stimuli organism exists This includes events organism real physical events included stimulus energy change organism receptor cells stimulus Topographically physical features Temporally occurs Functionally behavior ReinforcementReinforcement key element operant conditioning behavior change programs process behavior strengthened behavior closely time stimulus increase future frequency behavior stimulus positive reinforcer removal event serves reinforcer termed negative reinforcement There multiple schedules reinforcement affect future probability behavior PunishmentPunishment process consequence behavior decreases future frequency behavior reinforcement stimulus positive punishment removed negative punishment Broadly types punishment presentation aversive stimuli pain response cost removal desirable stimuli monetary fines restriction freedom time Punishment practice result unwanted effects Some potential unwanted effects include resentment punished attempts escape punishment expression pain negative emotions recognition punished individual punishment person delivering ExtinctionExtinction technical term procedure withholding discontinuing reinforcement reinforced behavior decrease behavior The behavior set extinguished Cooper Extinction procedures preferred punishment procedures punishment procedures deemed unethical prohibited Nonetheless extinction procedures implemented utmost care professionals generally extinction bursts extinction burst temporary increase frequency intensity duration behavior targeted extinction Other characteristics extinction burst include extinction produced aggression occurrence emotional response extinction procedure manifested aggression extinction induced response variability occurrence behaviors typically occur prior extinction procedure These behaviors core component shapingprocedures Discriminated operant term contingencyIn addition relation behavior consequences operant conditioning establishes relations antecedent conditions behaviors This differs formulations replaces formulation relation behavior context consequences relationship relationship established prior consequences occurred contexts This antecedent behavior consequence contingency termed term contingency behavior occurs frequently presence antecedent condition absence called discriminated operant The antecedent stimulus called discriminative stimulus The fact discriminated operant occurs presence discriminative stimulus illustration stimulus control More behavior analysts focusing conditions occur prior circumstances current behavior concern increased likelihood behavior occurring occurring These conditions referred variously Setting Event Establishing Operations Motivating Operations researchers publications Verbal behaviorB Skinner classification behavior analysis applied treatment host communication disorders Skinner includes Tact psychology verbal response evoked verbal antecedent maintained generalized conditioned reinforcement Mand psychology behavior control motivating operations maintained characteristic reinforcer Intraverbals verbal behavior relevant antecedent stimulus verbal behavior share response topography prior verbal stimulus responding speaker question Autoclitic secondary verbal behavior alters primary verbal behavior listener Examples involve quantification grammar qualifying statements differential effects For assessment verbal behavior Skinner Assessment Basic Language Learning Skills Applied Behavior Analysis ZodiacPage