Evolutionary Psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a social and natural science theoretical method which looks at the psychological composition from a modern perspective of evolution. It aims to determine what human psychological characteristics have been adapted–that is, natural selection functional goods or sexual choice in human development. Physiological mechanisms such as adaptationist thinking

Evolutionary psychologists believe that behaviors or features that happen widely in all societies are excellent opportunities for evolutions, which include the ability to infer feelings of others, the discernment of children from other people, identification and preference of healthier mothers, and cooperation with others. Studies of human social conduct have been carried out with remarkable results, including infanticide, intelligence, married models, promiscuity, beauty perceptions, the bride’s price and parenting investment.

Evolutionary psychology theoretical approach social natural sciences examines psychological structure modern evolutionary perspective seeks identify human psychological traits evolved adaptations functional products natural selection sexual selection human evolution Adaptationist thinking physiological mechanisms heart lungs immune common evolutionary biology Some evolutionary psychologists apply thinking psychology arguing modularity mind body modular adaptations serving functions Evolutionary psychologists argue human behavior output psychological adaptations evolved solve recurrent problems human ancestral environments Evolutionary psychology simply subdiscipline psychology evolutionary theory provide foundational metatheoretical framework integrates entire field psychology evolutionary biology biology Evolutionary psychologists hold behaviors traits occur universally cultures good candidates evolutionary adaptations including abilities infer emotions discern kin kin identify prefer healthier mates cooperate There studies human social behaviour infanticide intelligence marriage patterns promiscuity perception beauty bride price parental investment impressive findings The theories findings evolutionary psychology applications fields including economics environment health law management psychiatry politics literature Criticism evolutionary psychology involves questions testability cognitive evolutionary assumptions modular functioning brain large uncertainty ancestral environment genetic adaptive explanations political ethical issues interpretations PrinciplesEvolutionary psychology approach views human nature product universal set evolved psychological adaptations recurring problems ancestral environment Proponents seeks integrate psychology natural sciences rooting organizing theory biology evolutionary theory understanding psychology branch biology Anthropologist John Tooby psychologist Leda Cosmides note Evolutionary psychology long forestalled scientific attempt assemble disjointed fragmentary mutually contradictory human disciplines single logically integrated framework psychological social behavioral sciences framework incorporates evolutionary sciences equal basis systematically works revisions existing belief practice synthesis requires Just human physiology evolutionary physiology worked identify physical adaptations body represent human physiological nature purpose evolutionary psychology identify evolved emotional cognitive adaptations represent human psychological nature According Steven Pinker single theory large set hypotheses term refer applying evolutionary theory mind emphasis adaptation gene level selection modularity Evolutionary psychology adopts understanding mind based computational theory mind describes mental processes computational operations fear response arising neurological computation inputs perceptional data visual image spider outputs reaction fear dangerous animals Under view Domain general learning impossible Combinatorial explosion This implies Domain specific learning Evolutionary Psychology specifies domain problems survival reproduction While philosophers generally considered human mind include broad faculties reason lust evolutionary psychologists evolved psychological mechanisms narrowly focused deal specific issues catching cheaters choosing mates The discipline views human brain comprising functional mechanisms called psychological adaptations evolved cognitive mechanisms cognitive modules designed process natural selection Examples include language acquisition modules incest avoidance mechanisms cheater detection mechanisms intelligence sex specific mating preferences foraging mechanisms alliance tracking mechanisms agent detection mechanisms Some mechanisms termed domain specific deal recurrent adaptive problems human evolutionary history Domain general mechanisms hand proposed deal evolutionary novelty Evolutionary psychology roots cognitive psychology evolutionary biology draws behavioral ecology artificial intelligence genetics ethology anthropology archaeology biology zoology closely linked sociobiology key differences including emphasis domain specific domain general mechanisms relevance measures current fitness mismatch theory psychology behavior Most labeled sociobiological confined field behavioral ecology citation needed Nikolaas Tinbergen categories questions clarify distinctions complementary types explanations Evolutionary psychology focuses questions traditional psychology focuses questions PremisesEvolutionary psychology founded core premises The brain processing device produces behavior response external internal inputs The brain adaptive mechanisms shaped natural sexual selection Different neural mechanisms specialized solving problems humanity evolutionary The brain evolved specialized neural mechanisms designed solving problems recurred deep evolutionary time modern humans stone age minds Most contents processes brain unconscious mental problems easy solve extremely difficult problems solved unconsciously complicated neural mechanisms Human psychology consists specialized mechanisms sensitive classes inputs These mechanisms combine produce manifest behavior Theoretical foundationsThe theories evolutionary psychology based originated Charles Darwin work including speculations evolutionary origins social instincts humans Modern evolutionary psychology advances evolutionary theory 20th century Evolutionary psychologists natural selection humans psychological adaptations generated humans anatomical physiological adaptations adaptations general psychological adaptations specialized environment organism evolved environment evolutionary adaptedness Sexual selection organisms adaptations mating For male mammals high maximal potential reproduction rate sexual selection leads adaptations compete females For female mammals maximal potential reproduction rate sexual selection leads choosiness helps females select higher quality mates Charles Darwin natural selection sexual selection relied group selection explain evolution altruistic sacrificing behavior But group selection considered weak explanation group altruistic individuals survive group sacrificing 1964 William Hamilton proposed inclusive fitness theory emphasizing gene centered view evolution Hamilton genes increase replication copies generation influencing organism social traits statistically helping survival reproduction copies genes simply identical copies organism close relatives According Hamilton rule sacrificing behaviors genes influencing evolve typically organism close relatives compensates individual animal sacrifice Inclusive fitness theory resolved issue altruism evolve Other theories explain evolution altruistic behavior including evolutionary game theory tit tat reciprocity generalized reciprocity These theories explain development altruistic behavior account hostility cheaters individuals advantage altruism Several mid level evolutionary theories inform evolutionary psychology The selection theory proposes species prosper offspring follow strategy offspring investing Humans follow strategy Parental investment theory explains parents invest individual offspring based successful offspring improve parents inclusive fitness According Trivers Willard hypothesis parents good conditions tend invest sons advantage good conditions parents poor conditions tend invest daughters successful offspring poor conditions According life history theory animals evolve life histories match environments determining details age reproduction number offspring Dual inheritance theory posits genes human culture interacted genes development culture culture turn human evolution genetic level Baldwin Evolved psychological mechanismsEvolutionary psychology based hypothesis hearts lungs livers kidneys immune systems cognition functional structure genetic basis evolved natural selection Like organs tissues functional structure universally shared species solve problems survival reproduction Evolutionary psychologists seek understand psychological mechanisms understanding survival reproductive functions served evolutionary history These include abilities infer emotions discern kin kin identify prefer healthier mates cooperate follow leaders Consistent theory natural selection evolutionary psychology sees humans conflict including mates relatives For instance mother wean offspring breastfeeding earlier infant frees mother invest additional offspring Evolutionary psychology recognizes role kin selection reciprocity evolving prosocial traits altruism Like chimpanzees bonobos humans subtle flexible social instincts allowing form extended families lifelong friendships political alliances studies testing theoretical predictions evolutionary psychologists modest findings topics infanticide intelligence marriage patterns promiscuity perception beauty bride price parental investment Historical topicsProponents evolutionary psychology 1990s explorations historical events response historical experts highly negative effort continue Historian Lynn Hunt historians complained researchers read wrong studies misinterpreted experiments worse turned neuroscience universalizing anti representational anti intentional ontology bolster claims Hunt attempts build subfield psychohistory collapsed weight presuppositions She concludes 2014 iron curtain historians psychology remains standing Products evolution adaptations exaptations byproducts random variationNot traits organisms evolutionary adaptations table traits exaptations byproducts adaptations called spandrels random variation individuals Psychological adaptations hypothesized innate easy learn manifest cultures worldwide For ability toddlers learn language virtually training psychological adaptation hand ancestral humans read write today learning read write require extensive training represent byproducts cognitive processing psychological adaptations designed functions However variations manifest behavior result universal mechanisms interacting local environments For Caucasians northern climate equator darker skin The mechanisms regulating pigmentation change input mechanisms change output Obligate facultative adaptationsA question asked adaptation generally obligate robust face typical environmental variation facultative sensitive typical environmental variation The sweet taste sugar pain hitting knee concrete result obligate psychological adaptations typical environmental variability development affect operation contrast facultative adaptations statements For adult attachment style sensitive early childhood experiences adults propensity develop close trusting bonds dependent early childhood caregivers trusted provide reliable assistance attention The adaptation skin tan conditional exposure sunlight facultative adaptation When psychological adaptation facultative evolutionary psychologists concern developmental environmental inputs influence expression adaptation Cultural universalsEvolutionary psychologists hold behaviors traits occur universally cultures good candidates evolutionary adaptations Cultural universals include behaviors language cognition social roles gender roles technology Evolved psychological adaptations ability learn language interact cultural inputs produce specific behaviors specific language learned Basic gender differences greater eagerness sex men greater coyness women explained sexually dimorphic psychological adaptations reflect reproductive strategies males females Evolutionary psychologists contrast approach term standard social science model mind general purpose cognition device shaped culture Evolutionary Psychology ZodiacPage

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