History of Psychology

Egypt, Greece, China, India and Persia all worked on philosophical psychological studies in ancient civilisations. Ebers Papyrus referred to depression and disturbances of thought in ancient Egypt. Historians observe that the work of the mind is discussed in Greek philosophers, among them Thales, Plato and Aristotle, in his treatise De Anima in particular. Greek physiology as soon as the fourth century BC

The philosophical works of Laozi and Conphucius, then the teachings of Buddhism gave rise to psychological knowledge in China. This understanding includes introspection and observation perspectives as well as methods for concentrated thinking and acting. It depicts the universe as a division of physical and emotional truth and as an interaction between it, emphasizing purification of the mind in order to improve dignity and strength. An old text recognized as the Classic of internal medicine, which covers personality theories centered on yin-yang equilibrium and analyzes mental disorder in physiological conditions the brain identifies as a connection between the knowledge and sensationality.

History Psychology Egypt Greece China India Persia worked philosophical psychological studies ancient civilisations Ebers Papyrus referred depression disturbances thought ancient Egypt Historians observe work mind discussed Greek philosophers Thales Plato Aristotle treatise Anima Greek physiology fourth century The philosophical works Laozi Conphucius teachings Buddhism rise psychological knowledge China This understanding includes introspection observation perspectives methods concentrated thinking acting depicts universe division physical emotional truth interaction emphasizing purification mind order improve dignity strength text recognized Classic internal medicine covers personality theories centered yin yang equilibrium analyzes mental disorder physiological conditions brain identifies connection knowledge sensationality The ancient civilizations Egypt Greece China India Persia engaged philosophical study psychology Ancient Egypt Ebers Papyrus mentioned depression thought disorders Historians note Greek philosophers including Thales Plato Aristotle Anima treatise addressed workings mind early 4th century Greek physician Hippocrates theorized mental disorders physical supernatural China psychological understanding grew philosophical works Laozi Confucius doctrines Buddhism This body knowledge involves insights drawn introspection observation techniques focused thinking acting frames universe division interaction physical reality mental reality emphasis purifying mind order increase virtue power ancient text The Yellow Emperor Classic Internal Medicine identifies brain nexus wisdom sensation includes theories personality based yin yang balance analyzes mental disorder terms physiological social disequilibria Chinese scholarship focused brain advanced Qing Dynasty work Western educated Fang Yizhi 1611 1671 Liu Zhi 1660 1730 Wang Qingren 1768 1831 Wang Qingren emphasized brain center nervous linked mental disorder brain diseases investigated dreams insomnia advanced theory hemispheric lateralization brain function Distinctions types awareness ancient thought India influenced Hinduism central idea Upanishads distinction person transient mundane eternal unchanging soul Divergent Hindu doctrines Buddhism challenged hierarchy emphasized reaching higher awareness Yoga range techniques pursuit goal Much Sanskrit corpus suppressed British East India Company British Raj 1800s However Indian doctrines influenced Western thinking Theosophical Society New Age group popular Euro American intellectuals Psychology popular topic Enlightenment Europe Germany Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 1646 1716 applied principles calculus mind arguing mental activity place indivisible continuum notably infinity human perceptions desires difference conscious unconscious awareness matter degree Christian Wolff identified psychology science writing Psychologia empirica 1732 Psychologia rationalis 1734 This notion advanced Immanuel Kant established idea anthropology psychology subdivision However Kant explicitly notoriously rejected idea experimental psychology writing empirical doctrine soul approach chemistry systematic art analysis experimental doctrine manifold observation separated mere division thought held separate recombined thinking subject suffer experimented suit purpose observation displaces observed object 1783 Ferdinand Ueberwasser 1752 1812 designated Professor Empirical Psychology Logic lectures scientific psychology developments overshadowed Napoleonic Wars Old University Münster discontinued Prussian authorities Having consulted philosophers Hegel Herbart 1825 Prussian established psychology mandatory discipline rapidly expanding highly influential educational However discipline embrace experimentation England early psychology involved phrenology response social problems including alcoholism violence country populated mental asylums Beginning experimental psychologyWilhelm Wundt seated colleagues psychological laboratory kind Gustav Fechner began conducting psychophysics Leipzig 1830s articulating principle Weber Fechner law human perception stimulus varies logarithmically intensity Fechner 1860 Elements Psychophysics challenged Kant stricture quantitative study mind Heidelberg Hermann von Helmholtz conducted parallel sensory perception trained physiologist Wilhelm Wundt Wundt turn Leipzig University establishing psychological laboratory brought experimental psychology Wundt focused breaking mental processes basic components motivated analogy advances chemistry successful investigation elements structure material Paul Flechsig Emil Kraepelin created influential psychology laboratory Leipzig focused experimental psychiatry Psychologists Germany Denmark Austria England United States Wundt setting laboratories Stanley Hall studied Wundt formed psychology lab Johns Hopkins University Maryland internationally influential Hall turn trained Yujiro Motora brought experimental psychology emphasizing psychophysics Imperial University Tokyo Wundt assistant Hugo Münsterberg taught psychology Harvard students Narendra Nath Sen Gupta 1905 founded psychology department laboratory University Calcutta Wundt students Walter Dill Scott Lightner Witmer James McKeen Cattell worked developing tests mental ability Catell studied eugenicist Francis Galton Psychological Corporation Wittmer focused mental testing children Scott selection employees Another student Wundt Edward Titchener created psychology program Cornell University advanced doctrine structuralist psychology Structuralism sought analyze classify aspects mind method introspection William James John Dewey Harvey Carr advanced expansive doctrine called functionalism attuned human environment actions 1890 James wrote influential book The Principles Psychology expanded realm structuralism memorably human stream consciousness interested American students emerging discipline Dewey integrated psychology social issues notably promoting progressive education assimilate immigrants inculcate moral values children One dogs Pavlov experiment surgically implanted cannula measure salivation preserved Pavlov Museum Ryazan RussiaA strain experimentalism connection physiology emerged South America leadership Horacio Piñero University Buenos Aires Russia greater emphasis biological basis psychology Ivan Sechenov 1873 essay Who Develop Psychology How Sechenov advanced idea brain reflexes aggressively promoted deterministicviewpoint human behavior Wolfgang Kohler Max Wertheimer Kurt Koffka founded school Gestalt psychology confused Gestalt therapy Fritz Perls This approach based idea individuals experience unified wholes Rather breaking thoughts behavior smaller elements structuralism Gestaltists maintained experience differs sum parts Other 19th century contributors field include German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus pioneer experimental study memory developed quantitative models learning forgetting University Berlin Russian Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered dogs learning process termed classical conditioning applied human beings Consolidation fundingOne earliest psychology societies Société Psychologie Physiologique France lasted 1885 1893 The meeting International Congress Psychology sponsored International Union Psychological Science place Paris August 1889 World Fair celebrating centennial French Revolution William James Americans attendees The American Psychological Association APA founded 1892 The International Congress continued held locations Europe wider international participation The Sixth Congress Geneva 1909 included presentations Russian Chinese Japanese Esperanto After hiatus World War Seventh Congress met Oxford greater participation war victorious Anglo Americans 1929 Congress place Yale University New Haven Connecticut attended hundreds members APA Tokyo Imperial University led bringing psychology East Japan ideas diffused China American psychology gained status World War standing committee headed Robert Yerkes administered mental tests Army Alpha Army Beta soldiers Subsequent funding behavioral large Rockefeller family Social Science Research Council Rockefeller charities funded National Committee Mental Hygiene promoted concept mental illness lobbied psychological supervision child development Through Bureau Social Hygiene funding Alfred Kinsey Rockefeller foundations established sex viable discipline Under influence Carnegie funded Eugenics Record Office Draper funded Pioneer Fund institutions eugenics movement impact American psychology 1910s 1920s eugenics standard topic psychology classes During World War Cold War military intelligence agencies established leading funders psychology armed forces Office Strategic Services intelligence agency University Michigan psychologist Dorwin Cartwright reported university researchers began large scale propaganda 1939 1941 months war social psychologist chiefly responsible determining week week propaganda policy United States Government Cartwright wrote psychologists roles managing domestic economy The Army rolled General Classification Test engaged massive studies troop morale 1950s Rockefeller Foundationand Ford Foundation collaborated Central Intelligence Agency CIA fund psychological warfare 1965 public controversy called attention Army Project Camelot Manhattan Project social science effort enlisted psychologists anthropologists analyze foreign countries strategic purposes Germany World War psychology held institutional power military subsequently expanded rest military Third Reich Under direction Hermann Göring cousin Matthias Göring Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute renamed Göring Institute Freudian psychoanalysts expelled persecuted anti Jewish policies Nazi Party psychologists distance Freud Adler The Göring Institute financed war mandate create New German Psychotherapy This psychotherapy aimed align suitable Germans goals Reich physician Despite analysis spiritual guidance active cooperation patient represent overcome individual mental problems subordinate requirements Volk Gemeinschaft Psychologists provide Seelenführung leadership mind integrate people vision German community Harald Schultz Hencke melded psychology Nazi theory biology racial origins criticizing psychoanalysis study weak deformed Johannes Heinrich Schultz German psychologist recognized developing technique autogenic training prominently advocated sterilization euthanasia men considered genetically undesirable devised techniques facilitating process After war institutions created psychologists discredited Nazi affiliation Alexander Mitscherlich founded prominent applied psychoanalysis journal called Psyche funding Rockefeller Foundation established clinical psychosomatic medicine division Heidelberg University 1970 psychology integrated required studies medical students After Russian Revolution psychology heavily promoted Bolsheviks engineer New Man socialism Thus university psychology departments trained large numbers students positions schools workplaces cultural institutions military especial focus pedology study child development Lev Vygotsky prominent writer The Bolsheviks promoted free love embraced doctrine psychoanalysis antidote sexual repression Although pedology intelligence testing fell favor 1936 psychology maintained privileged position instrument Soviet Union Stalinist purges heavy toll instilled climate fear profession Soviet society Following World War Jewish psychologists including Lev Vygotsky Luria Aron Zalkind denounced Ivan Pavlov posthumously Stalin aggrandized heroes Soviet psychology Soviet academics speedily liberalized Khrushchev Thaw cybernetics linguistics genetics topics acceptable There emerged field called engineering psychology studied mental aspects complex jobs pilot cosmonaut Interdisciplinary studies popular scholars Georgy Shchedrovitsky developed systems theory approaches human behavior Twentieth century Chinese psychology originally modeled translations American authors William James establishment university psychology departments journals establishment groups including Chinese Association Psychological Testing 1930 Chinese Psychological Society 1937 Chinese psychologists encouraged focus education language learning aspiration education enable modernization nationalization John Dewey lectured Chinese audiences 1918 1920 influence doctrine Chancellor sai Yuan introduced Peking University greater thinker Confucius Kuo Zing yang received PhD University California Berkeley President Zhejiang University popularized behaviorism After Chinese Communist Party gained control country Stalinist Soviet Union leading influence Marxism Leninism leading social doctrine Pavlovian conditioning approved concept behavior change Chinese psychologists elaborated Lenin model reflective consciousness envisioning active consciousness pinyin tzu chueh neng tung transcend material conditions hard work ideological struggle They developed concept recognition pinyin jen shih referred interface individual perceptions socially accepted worldview failure correspond party doctrine incorrect recognition Psychology education centralized Chinese Academy Sciences supervised State Council 1951 Academy created Psychology Research Office 1956 Institute Psychology Most leading psychologists educated United States concern Academy education psychologists Soviet doctrines Child psychology pedagogy nationally cohesive education remained central goal discipline History Psychology ZodiacPage

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