Industrial and organizational psychology
Industrial psychology and psychology for organisations (I / O) is also regarded as psychology for job, organizational psychology, work and organizational psychology. I / O sociology is the study of human behavior related to employment and applies psychological concepts and values more usually to organisations, people and workplaces. The scientific / practitioner model trains I / O psychologists. By enhancing your performance, motivation, work happiness and job security and health and your overall health and well-being, you add to the achievement of an organization.
Division 14 of APA became the Industrial Psychology Department of the former US Aplicated Psychology Association. The Division of Industrial and Business Psychology was originally called. The Division of Industrial Psychology was renamed in 1962. In 1973, it was renamed the Industrial and Organizational Psychology Division again. This time. In 1982 the department became autonomous of APA and this time the Company for Industrial and Organizational Psychology was altered its name again.Industrial organizational psychology Industrial psychology psychology organisations regarded psychology job organizational psychology work organizational psychology sociology study human behavior employment applies psychological concepts values organisations people workplaces The scientific practitioner model trains psychologists enhancing performance motivation work happiness job security health health add achievement organization Division APA Industrial Psychology Department Aplicated Psychology Association The Division Industrial Business Psychology originally called The Division Industrial Psychology renamed 1962 1973 renamed Industrial Organizational Psychology Division This time 1982 department autonomous APA time Company Industrial Organizational Psychology altered Industrial organizational psychology psychology occupational psychology organizational psychology work organizational psychology applied discipline psychology psychology science human behaviour relating work applies psychological theories principles organizations individuals places work individual work life generally psychologists trained scientist practitioner model They contribute organization success improving performance motivation job satisfaction occupational safety health health employees psychologist conducts employee behaviours attitudes improved hiring practices training programs feedback management systems 2018 psychology recognized specialties American Psychological Association APA United States represented Division APA formally Society Industrial Organizational Psychology SIOP United Kingdom industrial organizational psychologists referred occupational psychologists Occupational psychology protected titles profession practitioner psychologist regulated Health Care Professions Council graduate programs psychology including occupational psychology accredited British Psychological Society Australia title organizational psychologist protected law regulated Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency AHPRA Organizational psychology areas specialist endorsement psychology practice Australia Europe specialist EuroPsy Certificate Work Organisational Psychology fully qualified psychologist expert work psychology field Industrial organizational psychologists reaching EuroPsy standard recorded Register European Psychologists industrial organizational psychology main psychology specializations Europe South Africa industrial psychology registration category profession psychologist regulated Health Professions Council South Africa HPCSA The historical development psychology paralleled Australia Germany Netherlands eastern European countries Romania The roots psychology trace psychology science Wilhelm Wundt founded psychological laboratories 1879 Leipzig Germany mid 1880s Wundt trained psychologists Hugo Münsterberg James McKeen Cattell major influence emergence psychology Instead viewing performance differences human errors Cattell recognize differences individuals understanding work behavior Walter Dill Scott contemporary Cattell elected President American Psychological Association APA 1919 arguably prominent psychologist time Scott Walter Van Dyke Bingham worked Carnegie Institute Technology developing methods selecting training sales personnel The industrial psychology originated individual differences assessment prediction work performance Industrial psychology crystallized World War response rapidly assign troops duty Scott Bingham volunteered testing placement army recruits 1917 prominent psychologists adapted intelligence test Stanford Binet designed testing individual time suitable group testing The test called Army Alpha After War growing industrial base source momentum called industrial psychology Private industry set emulate successful testing army personnel Mental ability testing commonplace work setting Elton Mayo rest periods improved morale reduced turnover Philadelphia textile factory joined ongoing Hawthorne studies interested workers emotions informal relationships productivity The studies ushered human relations movement World War brought renewed ability testing accurately place recruits technologically advanced military jobs introduction assessment center concern morale fatigue war industry workers The industrial psychology division American Association Applied Psychology division APA Division APA initially called Industrial Business Psychology Division 1962 changed Industrial Psychology Division 1973 renamed time Division Industrial Organizational Psychology 1982 unit independent APA changed time Society Industrial Organizational Psychology The change division industrial psychology industrial organizational psychology reflected shift work industrial psychologists originally addressed work behavior individual perspective examining performance attitudes individual workers Their work broader Group behavior workplace worthy subject study The emphasis organizational underlined fact individual joins organization organization hired exposed common goal common set operating procedures 1970s references occupational psychology common psychology According Bryan Vinchur organizational psychology increased popularity 1960s 1970s practice traditional areas industrial psychology continued driven employment legislation case law There focus fairness validity selection efforts job analyses undergirded selection instruments For psychology increased behaviorally anchored rating scales What critics psychology accused discipline responsive concerns managements From 1980 2010s psychology place Researchers increasingly multi level approach attempting understand behavioral phenomena level organization level individual worker There increased expectations employees individuals For emphasis organizational justice psychological contract root traditional concerns selection training Methodological innovations meta analyses structural equation modeling With passage American Disabilities Act 1990 parallel legislation psychology increased emphasis fairness personnel decisions Training relied increasingly advances educational psychology cognitive science Job analysisJob analysis encompasses number methods including limited interviews questionnaires task analysis observation involves systematic collection job task oriented job analysis involves examination duties tasks competencies required job assessed contrast worker oriented job analysis involves examination knowledge skills abilities characteristics KSAOs required perform work Information job analyses purposes including creation job relevant selection procedures performance appraisals criteria require development training programs Personnel recruitment selectionI psychologists typically work human resource specialists design recruitment processes personnel selection systems citation needed Personnel recruitment process identifying qualified candidates workforce apply jobs organization Personnel recruitment processes include developing job announcements placing ads defining key qualifications applicants screening unqualified applicants Personnel selection systematic process hiring promoting personnel Personnel selection systems employ evidence based practices determine qualified candidates Personnel selection involves newly hired individuals promoted organization Common selection tools include ability tests cognitive physical psycho motor knowledge tests personality tests structured interviews systematic collection biographical data work samples psychologists evaluate evidence extent selection tools predict job performance Personnel selection procedures validated job relevant personnel selection types validity content validity construct validity criterion validity psychologists adhere professional standards personnel selection efforts SIOP Principles validation personnel selection procedures APA National Council Measurement Education Standards educational psychological testing sources standards The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Uniform guidelines influential guiding personnel selection decisions meta analysis selection methods general mental ability predictor job performance attainment training Performance appraisal managementPerformance appraisal performance evaluation process individual group work behaviors outcomes assessed managers expectations job Performance appraisal frequently promotion compensation decisions design validate personnel selection procedures performance management Performance management process providing performance feedback relative expectations relevant improvement coaching mentoring Performance management include documenting tracking performance organizational evaluation purposes psychologist typically job analysis determine job performance dimensions construct rating scale level performance job citation needed Often psychologist responsible training organizational personnel performance appraisal instrument including ways minimize bias rating scale provide effective performance feedback Individual assessment psychometricsMain articles Individual assessment PsychometricsIndividual assessment involves measurement individual differences psychologists perform individual assessments order evaluate differences candidates employment differences employees The constructs measured pertain job performance With candidates employment individual assessment personnel selection process These assessments include written tests aptitude tests physical tests psycho motor tests personality tests integrity reliability tests work samples simulations assessment centres Occupational health beingI psychologists concerned occupational health Early 20th century Arthur Kornhauser examined impact productivity hiring mentally unstable workers Kornhauser examined link industrial working conditions mental health spillover worker personal life unsatisfying job More researchers staying vigorous working hours work behaviour subjective effective functioning family domain Trait vigor recovery experiences work vigor work Job satisfaction life satisfaction happiness positive affect absence negative affect Other older workers activities volunteering participating social clubs decrease depressive symptoms years Research job changing mobility organizations burnout Workplace bullying aggression violenceI psychologists concerned topics workplace bullying aggression violence For exposure workplace violence elicited ruminative thinking ruminative thinking turn poor interpersonal aggressive behaviours worse team performance Remuneration compensationCompensation includes wages salary bonuses pension retirement contributions employee benefits converted cash replace living expenses psychologists asked conduct job evaluation purpose determining compensation levels ranges psychologists serve expert witnesses pay discrimination cases disparities pay work alleged employees Training training evaluationTraining involves systematic teaching skills concepts attitudes improved performance environment Because people hired job versed tasks job requires training needed individual perform job effectively Evidence training effective succeeds terms higher net sales gross profitability employee Similar performance management psychologist employ job analysis concert application principles instructional design create effective training program citation needed training program include summative evaluation conclusion order ensure trainees met training objectives perform target work tasks acceptable level Training programs include formative evaluations assess training training proceeds Formative evaluations locate problems training procedures psychologists corrective adjustments training ongoing citation needed The foundation training programs learning Learning outcomes organized broad categories cognitive skill based affective outcomes Cognitive training aimed instilling declarative knowledge knowledge rules facts principles police officer training covers laws court procedures Skill based training aims impart procedural knowledge skills needed special tool technical skills understanding workings software program Affective training concerns teaching individuals develop specific attitudes beliefs predispose trainees behave commitment organization diversity assessment analysis corporate individual goals undertaken prior development training program p164 addition careful analysis required order develop systematic understanding training needed taught trained training analysis typically involves step process includes organizational analysis task analysis person analysis organizational analysis examination organizational goals resources organizational environment citation needed The organizational analysis determine training directed The analysis identifies training departments subunits citation needed systematically assesses manager peer technological support transfer training organizational analysis takes account climate organization subunits For climate safety emphasized organization subunits organization production training reflect emphasis safety task analysis job analysis determine needed successful job performance contributing training content With organizations increasingly identify core competencies required jobs task analysis include assessment competencies person analysis identifies individuals organization receive training kind instruction Employee assessed variety methods identify weaknesses training address Motivation workplaceWork motivation reflects energy individual applies initiate work behavior determine form direction intensity duration Understanding motivates organization employees central psychology Motivation generally thought theoretical construct fuels behavior incentive anticipated reward thought incline person behave Motivation varies individuals Studying influence behavior examined ability environmental influences Because motivation role influencing workplace behavior performance organizations structure work environment encourage productive behaviors discourage unproductive behaviors Motivation involves psychological processes arousal direction intensity citation needed Arousal initiates action fueled person desire missing life totally partially Direction refers path employees accomplishing goals set Intensity energy employees goal directed work performance The level intensity reflects difficulty goal These psychological processes involve factors First motivation serves direct attention focusing issues people tasks Second serves stimulate effort Third motivation influences persistence Finally motivation influences choice application task strategies Occupational stressI psychologists involved practice occupational stress design individual organizational interventions manage reduce stress levels increase productivity performance health wellbeing Occupational stress implications organizational performance emotions job stress evokes For job stressor conflict supervisor precipitate anger turn motivates counterproductive workplace behaviors examined association work stressors aggression theft substance abuse depressive symptoms number models developed explain job stress process including person environment fit model demand control model Those models cornerstone emergence late 1980s early 1990s discipline relevant occupational stress discipline occupational health psychology offshoot psychology health psychology occupational medicine Research examined occupational stress specific occupations including police general practitioners dentists Another concern relation occupational stress family life Other examined gender differences leadership style job stress strain context male female dominated industries unemployment distress psychology concerned relation occupational stress career advancement Occupational safetyMain article Occupational health safetyAccidents safety workplace areas psychology Examples psychosocial injury hazards psychology include fatigue workplace violence workplace bullying working night shifts researchers conduct stress audits organizations remain compliant occupational safety regulations Psychosocial hazards affect musculoskeletal disorders psychosocial factor accident risk safety climate refers employees perceptions extent work organization prioritizes safety contrast psychosocial safety climate refers management policies practices procedures aimed protecting workers psychological health Research safety leadership relevant psychology Research suggests safety oriented transformational leadership positive safety climate safe worker practices Organizational cultureOrganizational culture set assumptions shared individuals organization assumptions influence interpretation actions define behavior situations citation needed Organizational culture affect organizational outcomes performance attraction recruitment retention employee satisfaction employee citation needed There levels organizational culture artifacts shared values basic beliefs assumptions Artifacts comprise physical components organization relay cultural meaning Shared values individuals preferences aspects organization culture loyalty customer service Basic beliefs assumptions include individuals impressions trustworthiness supportiveness organization deeply ingrained organization culture addition culture organizations subcultures Examples subcultures include corporate culture departmental culture local culture issue culture While single type organizational culture researchers developed models organizational cultures Group behaviorGroup behavior involves interactions individuals collective The individuals opinions attitudes adaptations affect group behavior group behavior turn opinions The interactions thought fulfill satisfaction individual collective specific area group behavior team dynamics team effectiveness Team effectivenessOrganizations organize teams teams accomplish greater work short period time individual accomplish examined harm workplace aggression team performance Team compositionTeam composition configuration team member knowledge skills abilities characteristics fundamentally influences teamwork Team composition considered selection management teams increase likelihood team success achieve high quality teams built members higher skill levels effective teams built members lesser skills teams include members diversity skills improved team performance Team members compatible terms personality traits values work styles There substantial evidence personality traits values shape nature teamwork influence team performance Task designA fundamental question team task design task team Those tasks require independent work left individuals team tasks include tasks consist interdependent work When task team task design play key role team effectiveness Job characteristic theory identifies core job dimensions affect motivation satisfaction performance These dimensions include skill variety task identity task significance autonomy feedback The dimensions map team environment Individual contributors perform team tasks challenging interesting engaging motivated exert greater effort perform team members working tasks lack characteristics Organizational resourcesOrganizational support systems affect team effectiveness provide resources teams operating multi team environment During chartering teams organizational enabling resources identified Examples enabling resources include facilities equipment training leadership Team specific resources budgetary resources human resources typically Team specific human resources represent individual contributors selected team members Intra team processes task design task assignment involve team specific resources Teams function dynamic multi team environments Teams respond shifting organizational contingencies Contingencies teams include constraints arising conditions organizational resources exclusively earmarked teams When resources scarce shared multiple teams Team rewardsOrganizational reward systems drive strengthening enhancing individual team member efforts efforts contribute reaching team goals rewards individual team members contingent performance entire team Several design elements needed enable organizational reward systems operate First collective assessment individual team members group tasks highly interdependent case individual assessment team assessment Second individual level reward systems team level reward systems compatible For unfair reward entire team job team member work That team member view teams teamwork negatively work team future Third organizational culture created supports rewards employees teamwork maintain positive attitude team based rewards Team goalsGoals motivate team members goals elements difficulty acceptance specificity Under difficult goal conditions teams committed members tend outperform teams committed members When team members commit team goals team effectiveness function supportive members The goals individual team members team goals interact Team individual goals coordinated Individual goals consistent team goals order team effective Industrial organizational psychology ZodiacPage