Neuropsychology is the research and description of cognitive changes which accompany a trauma or illness in neurology. The aim is to know how conduct and cognition are affected by brain function and the diagnosis and treatment of comportmental and cognitive impacts of neurological disorders. They are both an experimental and a clinical background in psychology.
In reality, neuropsychologists tend to operate in study environments (university, laboratory, study institution), clinical environments (medical clinics or recovery environments, often engaged in the evaluation and treatment of neuropsychological clients), forensic environments or industries. Neuropsychology in the sector of psychology is a fairly fresh specialty. In 1980, Kolb and Whishaw originally published the first textbook that defined the field, the Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology.Neuropsychology Neuropsychology description cognitive accompany trauma illness neurology The aim conduct cognition brain function diagnosis treatment comportmental cognitive impacts neurological disorders They experimental clinical background psychology reality neuropsychologists tend operate study environments university laboratory study institution clinical environments medical clinics recovery environments engaged evaluation treatment neuropsychological clients forensic environments industries Neuropsychology sector psychology fresh specialty 1980 Kolb Whishaw originally published textbook defined field Fundamentals Human Neuropsychology Neuropsychology study characterization behavioral modifications follow neurological trauma condition experimental clinical field psychology aims understand behavior cognition influenced brain functioning concerned diagnosis treatment behavioral cognitive effects neurological disorders Whereas classical neurology focuses pathologyof nervous classical psychology divorced neuropsychology seeks discover brain correlates mind study neurological patients shares concepts concerns neuropsychiatry behavioral neurology general The term neuropsychology applied lesion studies humans animals applied efforts record electrical activity individual cells groups cells higher primates including studies human patients practice neuropsychologists tend work settings universities laboratories institutions clinical settings medical hospitals rehabilitation settings involved assessing treating patients neuropsychological problems forensic settings industry clinical trial consultants CNS function concern HistoryNeuropsychology discipline field psychology The textbook defining field Fundamentals Human Neuropsychology initially published Kolb Whishaw 1980 However history development traced Third Dynasty ancient Egypt earlier There debate societies started functions organs For centuries brain thought useless discarded burial processes autopsies field medicine developed understanding human anatomy physiology theories developed body functioned Many times bodily functions approached religious point view abnormalities blamed bad spirits gods The brain considered center functioning body hundreds years develop understanding brain behaviors Ancient EgyptIn ancient Egypt writings medicine time priest Imhotep They scientific approach medicine disease describing brain trauma abnormalities remedies reference future physicians Despite Egyptians heart brain seat soul AristotleSenses perception memory dreams action Aristotle biology Impressions stored seat perception linked Laws Association similarity contrast contiguity Aristotle reinforced focus heart originated Egypt believed heart control mental processes looked brain inert nature mechanism cooling heat generated heart drew conclusions based empirical study animals brains cold touch contact trigger movements heart warm active accelerating slowing dependent mood Such beliefs upheld years persisting Middle Ages Renaissance period began falter 17th century The influence Aristotle development neuropsychology evident language modern day follow hearts learn heart HippocratesHippocrates viewed brain seat soul drew connection brain behaviors body writing The brain exercises greatest power man Apart moving focus heart seat soul brain Hippocrates actual functioning However switching attention medical community brain theory led scientific discovery organ responsible behaviors For years scientists inspired explore functions body concrete explanations normal abnormal behaviors Scientific discovery led natural organically occurring reasons explain functions body traced brain Hippocrates introduced concept mind separate function actual brain organ René DescartesPhilosopher René Descartes expanded idea work mind body problem Often Descartes ideas looked overly philosophical lacking sufficient scientific foundation Descartes focused anatomical experimentation brain paying special attention pineal gland argued actual seat soul Still deeply rooted spiritual outlook scientific body mortal soul immortal The pineal gland thought place mind interact mortal machine body time Descartes convinced mind control behaviors body controlling person body influence mind referred dualism This idea mind essentially control body body resist influence behaviors major turning point physiologists brain The capabilities mind observed simply react rational function organized thoughtful ways complex thought animal These ideas disregarded cast years led medical community expand ideas brain understand ways intricate workings brain complete effects daily life treatments beneficial helping people living dysfunctional mind The mind body problem spurred René Descartes continues day philosophical arguments ideas However controversial remain today fresh thought perspective Descartes presented long lasting effects disciplines medicine psychology putting emphasis separating mind body order explain observable behaviors Thomas WillisIt mid 17th century major contributor field neuropsychology emerged Thomas Willis studied Oxford University physiological approach brain behavior Willis coined hemisphere lobe referring brain earliest neurology psychology Rejecting idea humans beings capable rational thought Willis looked specialized structures brain theorized higher structures accounted complex functions structures responsible functions animals consisting reactions automatic responses interested people suffered manic disorders hysteria His constituted times psychiatry neurology study individuals Through depth study brain behavior Willis concluded automated responses breathing heartbeats motor activities carried region brain Although work obsolete ideas presented brain complex imagined led future pioneers understand build theories disorders dysfunctions brain Franz Joseph GallNeuroanatomist physiologist Franz Joseph Gall major progress understanding brain theorized personality features structures brain However Gall major contribution field neuroscience phrenology This discipline looked brain organ mind shape skull ultimately determine intelligence personality This theory circulating time scientists account physical features face body head size anatomical structure levels intelligence Gall looked brain There debate validity Gall claims wrong predictions cast René Descartes skull method phrenology claimed subject limited capacity reasoning higher cognition controversial false Gall claims contributions understanding cortical regions brain localized activity continued advance understanding brain personality behavior His work considered crucial laid firm foundation field neuropsychology flourish decades Jean Baptiste BouillaudJean Baptiste BouillaudTowards late 19th century belief size skull determine level intelligence discarded science medicine moved physician Jean Baptiste Bouillaud expanded ideas Gall closer idea distinct cortical regions brain independent function Bouillaud interested speech wrote publications anterior region brain responsible carrying speech discovery stemmed Gall larger samples years method accepted case studies Bouillaud discover areas brain speech completed understood observing people brain damage theory concrete Bouillaud pioneers time great advances field neurology localization function There arguable debates deserves credit discoveries people remain unmentioned Paul Broca famous contributors neuropsychology referred father discipline Paul BrocaInspired advances area localized function brain Paul Broca committed study phenomena speech understood produced Through study discovered expanded articulate left hemisphere Broca observations methods considered neuropsychology takes form recognizable respected discipline Armed understanding specific independent areas brain responsible articulation understanding speech brains abilities finally acknowledged complex highly intricate organ Broca essentially fully break ideas phrenology delve deeper scientific psychological view brain Karl Spencer LashleyLashley works theories follow summarized book Brain Mechanisms Intelligence Lashley theory Engram driving force engram believed brain specific memory stored continued training ablation method Franz taught train rat learn maze systematic lesions removed sections cortical tissue rat forgot learned Through rats learned forgetting dependent tissue removed removed called mass action believed general rule governed brain tissue respond independent type learning But mass action misinterpretation empirical order maze rats required multiple cortical areas cutting small individual parts impair rats brains large sections removes multiple cortical areas time functions sight motor coordination memory making animal unable maze properly Lashley proposed portion functional area carry role entire area rest area removed called phenomenon equipotentiality evidence plasticity brain The brain spectacular ability areas functions areas areas fail removed extent initially argued Lashley Methods toolsStandardized neuropsychological tests These tasks designed performance task linked specific neurocognitive processes These tests typically standardized meaning administered specific group groups individuals individual clinical cases The data standardization normative data After data collected analyzed comparative standard individual performances compared Examples neuropsychological tests include Wechsler Memory Scale WMS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS Boston Naming Test Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Benton Visual Retention Test Controlled Oral Word Association Brain scans The brain scans investigate structure function brain common simply assessing brain injury high resolution pictures examining relative activations brain areas Such technologies include fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging positron emission tomography PET yields data functioning MRI magnetic resonance imaging computed axial tomography CAT yields structural data Global Brain Project Brain models based mouse monkey developed based theoretical neuroscience involving working memory attention mapping brain activity based time constants validated measurements neuronal activity layers brain These methods map decision behavior simple tasks involve binary outcomes Electrophysiology The electrophysiological measures designed measure activation brain measuring electrical magnetic field produced nervous This include electroencephalography EEG magneto encephalography MEG Experimental tasks The designed experimental tasks controlled typically measuring reaction time accuracy tasks thought specific neurocognitive process Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery CANTAB CNS Vital Signs CNSVS Software products Researchers mapped neural activity brain brain scan MRI Applications based Neuropsychology influence behavior design habit formation product fooya mobile App children randomized controlled studies influence dietary preferences children Experimental neuropsychology approach methods experimental psychology uncover relationship nervous cognitive function The majority work involves studying healthy humans laboratory setting minority researchers conduct animal experiments Human work area takes advantage specific features nervous visual presented specific visual field preferentially processed corticalhemisphere links neuroanatomy psychological function Clinical neuropsychology application neuropsychological knowledge assessment neuropsychological test neuropsychological assessment management rehabilitation people suffered illness injury brain caused neurocognitive problems bring psychological viewpoint treatment understand illness injury affect psychological factors They offer opinion person demonstrating difficulties brain pathology consequence emotional reversible For test patients unable items exposed minutes indicating dementia patient prompting categorical clue told item fruit specific diagnosis simply dementia appears vascular type brain pathology reversible Clinical neuropsychologists work hospital settings interdisciplinary medical team work private practice provide expert input medico legal proceedings Cognitive neuropsychology development emerged distillation complementary approaches experimental clinical neuropsychology seeks understand mind brain studying people suffered brain injury neurological illness One model neuropsychological functioning functional localization This based principle specific cognitive problem injury specific area brain brain involved However reason link mental functions neural regions simple alternative model link mind brain parallel processing explanatory power workings dysfunction human brain Yet approach investigates pattern errors produced brain damaged individuals constrain understanding mental representations processes reference underlying neural structure approach cognitive neuropsychiatry seeks understand normal function mind brain studying psychiatric mental illness Connectionism artificial neural networks model specific cognitive processes considered simplified plausible models neurons operate Once trained perform specific cognitive task networks damaged lesioned simulate brain injury impairment attempt understand compare effects brain injury humans Functional neuroimaging specific neuroimaging technologies readings brain person task attempt understand activation brain areas task growth methodologies employ cognitive testing established functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI techniques study brain behavior relations notable influence neuropsychological practice approaches mutually exclusive neuropsychologists select approach approaches task completed Neuropsychology ZodiacPage