Occupational health psychology
Workplace health psychology is a field of psychology which is interdisciplinary and focuses on the health and security of employees. OHP discusses several important topics including the effect of stressors on the physical and mental health of workers, the effect on the physical and mental health of unemployment, the equilibrium between family and work, workplace abuse and other types of maltreatment, accidents and security and employee wellness measures. OHP has been established in two separate fields, namely health psychology, industrial and psychological organization and occupational medicine within applied pathology.
The Industrial Revolution led thinking people like Karl Marx to consider the essence of job and its effect on employees in their theory of alienation. Taylor’s (1911) Scientific Management principles, as well as Mayo’s research of the Hawthorne Western Electric plant in the late 1920’s and early 1930s helped to influence job on employees ‘ topics of psychology. Taylorism revisited the interaction worker-machine and its effect in working psychology about the moment it came to light. Because of his work stress research in 1948 it was essential to create the Institute for Social Research (ISR) at the University of Michigan.Occupational health psychology Workplace health psychology field psychology interdisciplinary focuses health security employees OHP discusses topics including stressors physical mental health workers physical mental health unemployment equilibrium family work workplace abuse types maltreatment accidents security employee wellness measures OHP established separate fields health psychology industrial psychological organization occupational medicine applied pathology The Industrial Revolution led thinking people Karl Marx essence job employees theory alienation Taylor 1911 Scientific Management principles Mayo Hawthorne Western Electric plant late 1920 early 1930s helped influence job employees topics psychology Taylorism revisited interaction worker machine working psychology moment light Because work stress 1948 essential create Institute Social Research ISR University Michigan Occupational health psychology OHP interdisciplinary area psychology concerned health safety workers OHP addresses number major topic areas including impact occupational stressors physical mental health impact involuntary unemployment physical mental health work family balance workplace violence forms mistreatment accidents safety interventions designed improve protect worker health OHP emerged distinct disciplines applied psychology health psychology industrial organizational psychology occupational medicine OHP informed disciplines including industrial sociology industrial engineering economics preventive medicine public health OHP concerned relationship psychosocial workplace factors development maintenance promotion workers health families Thus field focus work factors lead injury disease distress OriginsThe Industrial Revolution prompted thinkers Karl Marx theory alienation concern nature work impact workers Taylor 1911 Principles Scientific Management Mayo late 1920s early 1930s workers Hawthorne Western Electric plant helped inject impact work workers subject matter psychology addresses About time Taylorism arose Hartness reconsidered worker machine interaction impact worker psychology The creation 1948 Institute Social Research ISR University Michigan occupational stress employee health Research Trist Bamforth 1951 suggested reduction autonomy accompanied organizational English coal mining operations adversely worker morale Arthur Kornhauser work early 1960s mental health automobile workers Michigan contributed development field 1971 study Gardell examined impact work organization mental health Swedish pulp paper workers engineers Research impact unemployment mental health conducted University Sheffield Institute Work Psychology 1970 Kasl Cobb documented impact unemployment blood pressure factory workers Recognition field studyA number individuals creation term occupational health psychology occupational health psychologist They include Ferguson 1977 Feldman 1985 Everly 1986 Raymond Wood Patrick 1990 1988 response dramatic increase number stress worker compensation claims National Institute Occupational Safety Health NIOSH recognized stress psychological disorders leading occupational health risk When change coupled increased recognition impact stress range problems workplace NIOSH stress programs increasing prominence 1990 Raymond argued time doctoral level psychologists interdisciplinary OHP training integrating health psychology public health creating healthy workplaces goal field Emergence disciplineEstablished 1987 Work Stress longest established journal fast developing discipline occupational health psychology Three years American Psychological Association APA NIOSH jointly organized international Work Stress Health conference Washington The conference biannual OHP meeting 1996 issue Journal Occupational Health Psychology published APA That year International Commission Occupational Health created Work Organisation Psychosocial Factors ICOH WOPS scientific committee focused OHP 1999 European Academy Occupational Health Psychology OHP established European Workshop Occupational Health Psychology Lund Sweden That workshop considered OHP conference continuing series conferences OHP organizes devotes OHP practice 2000 informal International Coordinating Group Occupational Health Psychology ICGOHP founded purpose facilitating OHP education practice coordinating international conference scheduling Also 2000 Work Stress OHP 2005 Society Occupational Health Psychology SOHP established United States 2008 SOHP joined APA NIOSH sponsoring Work Stress Health conferences addition OHP SOHP began coordinate biennial conferences schedules organizations conferences place alternate years minimizing scheduling conflicts 2017 SOHP Springer began publish OHP journal Occupational Health Science Research methodsMain article List psychological methodsThe main purpose OHP understand working conditions affect worker health knowledge design interventions protect improve worker health evaluate effectiveness interventions The methods OHP branches psychology Standard designsSelf report survey methodology approach OHP Cross sectional designs commonly case control designs employed frequently Longitudinal designs including prospective cohort studies experience sampling studies examine relationships time OHP devoted evaluating health promoting workplace interventions relied quasi experimental designs commonly experimental approaches Quantitative methodsStatistical methods commonly areas psychology OHP Statistical methods include structural equation modeling hierarchical linear modeling HLM multilevel modeling HLM adjust similarities employees suited evaluating lagged impact work stressors health outcomes context HLM minimize censoring suited experience sampling studies Meta analyses aggregate data modern approaches meta analyses rely HLM draw conclusions multiple studies Qualitative methodsQualitative methods include interviews focus groups reported written descriptions stressful incidents work First hand observation workers job participant observation Research topicsImportant theoretical models OHP researchThree influential theoretical models OHP demand control support demand resources effort reward imbalance models Demand control support modelThe influential model OHP original demand control model According model combination levels work decision latitude autonomy control job combined high workloads high levels work demands harmful workers lead job strain term representing combination decision latitude high workload leading poorer mental physical health The model suggests job factors poorer health high levels decision latitude job buffer reduce adverse health impact high levels demands Research supported idea decision latitude demands relate strains findings buffering mixed studies providing support The demand control model asserts job control broad forms skill discretion decision authority Skill discretion refers level skill creativity required job flexibility employee permitted deciding skills opportunity skills job variety Decision authority refers employees decisions work autonomy These forms job control traditionally assessed composite measure decision latitude evidence types job control health outcomes About decade Karasek introduced demand control model Johnson Hall Theorell 1989 context heart disease extended model include social isolation Johnson labeled combination high levels demands levels control levels coworker support iso strain The expanded model labeled demand control support DCS model Research development model suggested components DCS model high psychological workload control lack social support exact combination represented iso strain adverse effects physical mental health Job demands resources modelAn alternative model job demands resources model grew DCS model model category demands workload remains DCS model model includes physical demands Resources defined job relevant features workers achieve work goals lessen job demands stimulate personal growth Control support DCS model subsumed resources Resources external organization internal worker personal addition control support resources encompassed model include physical equipment software performance feedback supervisors worker coping strategies There model constituents DCS model Effort reward imbalance modelAfter DCS model influential model OHP effort reward imbalance ERI model links job demands rewards employees receive job That model holds high work effort coupled control job intrinsic recognition extrinsic pay rewards triggers high levels activation neurohormonal pathways cumulatively thought exert adverse effects mental physical health Occupational stress physical healthA number work psychosocial factors linked cardiovascular disease CVD Cardiovascular diseaseResearch identified health behavioral biological factors increased risk CVD These risk factors include smoking obesity density lipoprotein bad cholesterol lack exercise blood pressure Psychosocial working conditions risk factors CVD case control study involving large data sets Murphy 1991 hazardous work situations jobs required vigilance responsibility work required attention devices increased risk cardiovascular disability These included jobs transportation air traffic controllers airline pilots bus drivers locomotive engineers truck drivers preschool teachers craftsmen Among studies involving men women association workplace stressors CVD Fredikson Sundin Frankenhaeuser 1985 reactions psychological stressors include increased activity brain axes play role regulation blood pressure ambulatory blood pressure meta analysis systematic review involving samples linked job strain elevated ambulatory blood pressure Belkić 2000 studies covered review revealed decision latitude psychological workload exerted independent effects CVD studies synergistic effects consistent strictest version demand control model review longitudinal studies high internal validity relation combination levels decision latitude high workload job strain condition CVD nonsignificant relation The findings clearer men women data sparse Fishta Backé review reviews links work psychosocial stress elevated risk CVD men massive 000 longitudinal study combined data independent studies Kivimäki 2012 controlling risk factors combination high levels demands control baseline increased risk CVD initially healthy workers follow period averaged years study effects men women Meta analytic links job strain combination high demands control stroke There evidence consistent ERI model high work effort coupled control job rewards adversely cardiovascular health studies men linked effort reward imbalance CVD Another large study links ERI incidence coronary disease Occupational health psychology ZodiacPage