Phenomenology is a study of consciousness structures from the point of view of the first person. The main framework of an environment is its intentions, its orientation, as it is an experience of or about an item. An experience, by its material or significance (which depicts the item), is guided to an item together with the suitable allowable circumstances.
As a science, phenomenology is different from other important philosophical subjects, such as ontology, epistemology, reasoning and morality. Phenomenologies have been performed for millennia in different ways, but were found in Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty and others at the beginning of the 20th millennium. In latest philosophy, phenomenological questions of intentionality, awareness, quality and outlook for the first person have been prominent.Phenomenology Experience Phenomenology study consciousness structures point view person The main framework environment intentions orientation experience item experience material significance depicts item guided item suitable allowable circumstances science phenomenology philosophical subjects ontology epistemology reasoning morality Phenomenologies performed millennia ways Husserl Heidegger Sartre Merleau Ponty 20th millennium latest philosophy phenomenological questions intentionality awareness quality outlook person prominent Phenomenology study structures consciousness experienced person point view The central structure experience intentionality directed experience object experience directed object virtue content meaning represents object enabling conditions Phenomenology discipline distinct key disciplines philosophy ontology epistemology logic ethics Phenomenology practiced guises centuries early 20th century works Husserl Heidegger Sartre Merleau Ponty Phenomenological issues intentionality consciousness qualia person perspective prominent philosophy mind What Phenomenology Phenomenology commonly understood ways disciplinary field philosophy movement history philosophy The discipline phenomenology defined initially study structures experience consciousness Literally phenomenology study phenomena appearances experience ways experience meanings experience Phenomenology studies conscious experience experienced subjective person point view This field philosophy distinguished main fields philosophy ontology study epistemology study knowledge logic study valid reasoning ethics study wrong action The historical movement phenomenology philosophical tradition launched 20th century Edmund Husserl Martin Heidegger Maurice Merleau Ponty Jean Paul Sartre movement discipline phenomenology prized proper foundation philosophy opposed ethics metaphysics epistemology The methods characterization discipline debated Husserl successors debates continue day The definition phenomenology offered debatable Heideggerians remains starting point characterizing discipline philosophy mind term phenomenology restricted characterization sensory qualities hearing sensations kinds However experience richer content mere sensation Accordingly phenomenological tradition phenomenology wider range addressing meaning experience notably significance objects events tools flow time experienced life Phenomenology discipline central tradition continental European philosophy 20th century philosophy mind evolved Austro Anglo American tradition analytic philosophy developed 20th century Yet fundamental character mental activity pursued overlapping ways traditions Accordingly perspective phenomenology drawn article accommodate traditions The main concern characterize discipline phenomenology contemporary purview highlighting historical tradition brought discipline Basically phenomenology studies structure types experience ranging perception thought memory imagination emotion desire volition bodily awareness embodied action social activity including linguistic activity The structure forms experience typically involves Husserl called intentionality directedness experience property consciousness consciousness According classical Husserlian phenomenology experience directed represents intends concepts thoughts ideas images These meaning content experience distinct The basic intentional structure consciousness reflection analysis involves forms experience Thus phenomenology develops complex account temporal awareness stream consciousness spatial awareness notably perception attention distinguishing focal marginal horizonal awareness awareness experience consciousness sense awareness awareness oneself roles thinking acting embodied action including kinesthetic awareness movement purpose intention action explicit awareness persons empathy intersubjectivity collectivity linguistic activity involving meaning communication understanding social interaction including collective action everyday activity surrounding life culture Furthermore dimension grounds enabling conditions conditions possibility intentionality including embodiment bodily skills cultural context language social practices social background contextual aspects intentional activities Thus phenomenology leads conscious experience conditions experience intentionality Traditional phenomenology focused subjective practical social conditions experience Recent philosophy mind focused neural substrate experience conscious experience mental representation intentionality grounded brain activity remains difficult question grounds experience fall province phenomenology discipline Cultural conditions closer experience familiar understanding electrochemical workings brain dependence quantum mechanical physical systems belong The cautious phenomenology leads ways background conditions experience The Discipline PhenomenologyThe discipline phenomenology defined domain study methods main Phenomenology studies structures conscious experience experienced person point view relevant conditions experience The central structure experience intentionality directed content meaning object experience types experience including perception imagination thought emotion desire volition action Thus domain phenomenology range experiences including types Experience includes passive experience vision hearing active experience walking hammering nail kicking ball The range specific species enjoys consciousness focus human experience Not conscious beings practice phenomenology Conscious experiences unique feature experience live perform Other observe engage But experience sense living performing This experiential person feature experienced essential nature structure conscious experience desire This feature phenomenological ontological feature experience experience experienced phenomenological experience ontological How study conscious experience reflect types experiences experience That proceed person point view However characterize experience time performing cases capability intense anger fear consumes psychic focus time Rather acquire background lived type experience familiarity type experience hearing song sunset thinking love intending jump hurdle The practice phenomenology assumes familiarity type experiences characterized Importantly types experience phenomenology pursues fleeting experience type interests Classical phenomenologists practiced distinguishable methods type experience experience Thus Husserl Merleau Ponty spoke pure description lived experience interpret type experience relating relevant features context vein Heidegger followers spoke hermeneutics art interpretation context social linguistic context analyze form type experience classical phenomenologists practiced analysis experience factoring notable features elaboration These traditional methods ramified decades expanding methods phenomenology Thus logico semantic model phenomenology truth conditions type thinking dogs chase cats satisfaction conditions type intention intend jump hurdle experimental paradigm cognitive neuroscience design empirical experiments tend confirm refute aspects experience brain scan electrochemical activity specific region brain thought subserve type vision emotion motor control This style neurophenomenology assumes conscious experience grounded neural activity embodied action surroundings mixing pure phenomenology biological physical science wholly congenial traditional phenomenologists What experience conscious awareness experience living performing This form awareness topic considerable debate centuries issue arose Locke notion consciousness heels Descartes sense consciousness conscience knowledge Does awareness experience consist kind observation experience Brentano argued higher order perception mind operation higher order thought mental activity Recent theorists proposed form inherent structure Sartre drawing Brentano Husserl These issues scope article notice phenomenological analysis shape characterization domain study methodology domain For awareness experience defining trait conscious experience trait experience person lived character lived character experience person perspective object study experience perspective characteristic methodology phenomenology Conscious experience starting point phenomenology experience shades overtly conscious phenomena Husserl stressed vaguely aware margin periphery attention implicitly aware wider horizon Moreover Heidegger stressed practical activities walking hammering nail speaking native tongue explicitly conscious habitual patterns action Furthermore psychoanalysts stressed intentional mental activity conscious conscious process therapy interrogation realize feel domain phenomenology experience spreads conscious experience semi conscious unconscious mental activity relevant background conditions implicitly invoked experience These issues subject debate point open door question draw boundary domain phenomenology elementary exercise phenomenology typical experiences everyday life characterized person fishing boat coast dusk descends Pacific hear helicopter whirring overhead approaches hospital thinking phenomenology differs psychology warm rain Mexico falling week imagine fearsome creature nightmare intend finish writing noon walk carefully broken glass sidewalk stroke backhand cross court underspin searching point conversation Here rudimentary characterizations familiar types experience Each sentence simple form phenomenological description articulating everyday English structure type experience The subject term person structure experience intentionality proceeds subject The verb type intentional activity perception thought imagination central objects awareness presented intended experiences conceive objects The direct object expression fishing boat coast articulates mode presentation object experience content meaning experience core Husserl called noema object phrase expresses noema extent language expressive power The form sentence articulates basic form intentionality experience subject content object Rich phenomenological description interpretation Husserl Merleau Ponty outrun simple phenomenological descriptions But simple descriptions bring basic form intentionality interpret phenomenological description assess relevance context experience And turn wider conditions possibility type experience practice phenomenology classify interpret analyze structures experiences ways answer experience interpretive descriptive analyses experience observe analyzing familiar forms consciousness conscious experience Intentionality salient structure experience phenomenology proceeds study aspects intentionality Thus explore structures stream consciousness enduring embodied bodily action Furthermore reflect phenomena work turn analysis relevant conditions enable experiences occur represent intend Phenomenology leads analyses conditions possibility intentionality conditions involving motor skills habits background social practices language special place human affairs From Phenomena PhenomenologyThe Oxford English Dictionary presents definition Phenomenology The science phenomena distinct ontology That division science describes classifies phenomena From Greek phainomenon appearance philosophy term sense debates theory methodology physics philosophy science term sense albeit occasionally root meaning phenomenology study phenomena literally appearances opposed reality This ancient distinction launched philosophy emerged Plato cave Yet discipline phenomenology blossom 20th century remains understood circles contemporary philosophy What discipline How philosophy root concept phenomena discipline phenomenology Originally 18th century phenomenology meant theory appearances fundamental empirical knowledge sensory appearances The Latin term Phenomenologia introduced Christoph Friedrich Oetinger 1736 Subsequently German term Phänomenologia Johann Heinrich Lambert follower Christian Wolff Immanuel Kant term occasionally writings Johann Gottlieb Fichte 1807 Hegel wrote book titled Phänomenologie des Geistes translated Phenomenology Spirit 1889 Franz Brentano term characterize called descriptive psychology From Edmund Husserl term science consciousness rest history Suppose phenomenology studies phenomena appears appearing How understand phenomena The term rich history centuries traces emerging discipline phenomenology strict empiricist vein appears mind sensory data qualia patterns sensations red feeling ticklish feeling hearing resonant bass tone patterns worldly smells flowers John Locke called secondary qualities strict rationalist vein contrast appears mind ideas rationally formed clear distinct ideas René Descartes ideal Immanuel Kant theory knowledge fusing rationalist empiricist aims appears mind phenomena defined represented synthesis sensory conceptual forms objects Auguste Comte theory science phenomena phenomenes facts faits occurs science explain 18th 19th century epistemology phenomena starting points building knowledge science Accordingly familiar current sense phenomena observe perceive seek explain discipline psychology emerged late 19th century phenomena guise Franz Brentano Psychology Empirical Standpoint 1874 phenomena occur mind mental phenomena acts consciousness contents physical phenomena objects external perception starting colors shapes For Brentano physical phenomena exist intentionally acts consciousness This view revives Medieval notion Brentano called intentional existence ontology remains undeveloped exist mind physical objects exist mind More generally phenomena conscious objects events people reflection conscious experiences experience technical sense phenomena consciousness perception imagination thought volition This conception phenomena inform discipline phenomenology Brentano distinguished descriptive psychology genetic psychology Where genetic psychology seeks types mental phenomena descriptive psychology defines classifies types mental phenomena including perception judgment emotion According Brentano mental phenomenon consciousness directed object mental phenomena directed This thesis intentional directedness hallmark Brentano descriptive psychology 1889 Brentano term phenomenology descriptive psychology paved Husserl science phenomenology Phenomenology launched Edmund Husserl Logical Investigations 1900 Two importantly lines theory monumental work psychological theory heels Franz Brentano William James Principles Psychology appeared 1891 greatly impressed Husserl logical semantic theory heels Bernard Bolzano Husserl contemporaries founded modern logic including Gottlob Frege Interestingly lines trace Aristotle reached importantly Husserl day Husserl Logical Investigations inspired Bolzano ideal logic Brentano conception descriptive psychology Theory Science 1835 Bolzano distinguished subjective objective ideas representations Vorstellungen Bolzano criticized Kant classical empiricists rationalists failing sort distinction rendering phenomena subjective Logic studies objective ideas including propositions turn objective theories sciences Psychology contrast study subjective ideas concrete contents occurrences mental activities minds time Husserl single discipline phenomena reconceived objective intentional contents called intentional objects subjective acts consciousness Phenomenology study complex consciousness correlated phenomena Ideas Book One 1913 Husserl introduced Greek capture version Bolzanoan distinction noesis noema Greek verb noéō νοέω meaning perceive intend noun nous mind The intentional process consciousness called noesis ideal content callednoema The noema consciousness Husserl characterized ideal meaning object intended Thus phenomenon object appears noema object intended The interpretations Husserl theory noema developments Husserl basic theory intentionality noema aspect object intended medium intention For Husserl phenomenology integrates kind psychology kind logic develops descriptive analytic psychology describes analyzes types subjective mental activity experience short acts consciousness Yet develops kind logic theory meaning today logical semantics describes analyzes objective contents consciousness ideas concepts images propositions short ideal meanings types serve intentional contents noematic meanings types experience These contents shareable acts consciousness sense objective ideal meanings Following Bolzano extent platonistic logician Hermann Lotze Husserl opposed reduction logic mathematics science mere psychology people happen spirit distinguished phenomenology mere psychology For Husserl phenomenology study consciousness reducing objective shareable meanings inhabit experience subjective happenstances Ideal meaning engine intentionality acts consciousness clear conception phenomenology awaited Husserl development clear model intentionality Indeed phenomenology modern concept intentionality emerged hand hand Husserl Logical Investigations 1900 With theoretical foundations laid theInvestigations Husserl promote radical science phenomenology Ideas 1913 And alternative visions phenomenology follow The History Varieties PhenomenologyPhenomenology Husserl epistemology Descartes ontology metaphysics Aristotle heels Plato Yet phenomenology practiced centuries When Hindu Buddhist philosophers reflected consciousness achieved variety meditative practicing phenomenology When Descartes Hume Kant characterized perception thought imagination practicing phenomenology When Brentano classified varieties mental phenomena defined directedness consciousness practicing phenomenology When William James appraised kinds mental activity stream consciousness including embodiment dependence habit practicing phenomenology And analytic philosophers mind addressed issues consciousness intentionality practicing phenomenology Still discipline phenomenology roots tracing centuries flower Husserl Husserl work flurry phenomenological writing 20thcentury The diversity traditional phenomenology apparent Encyclopedia Phenomenology Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997 Dordrecht Boston features separate articles types phenomenology Transcendental constitutive phenomenology studies objects constituted pure transcendental consciousness setting questions relation natural Naturalistic constitutive phenomenology studies consciousness constitutes takes nature assuming natural attitude consciousness nature Existential phenomenology studies concrete human existence including experience free choice action concrete situations Generative historicist phenomenology studies meaning experience generated historical processes collective experience time Genetic phenomenology studies genesis meanings stream experience Hermeneutical phenomenology studies interpretive structures experience understand engage human including Realistic phenomenology studies structure consciousness intentionality assuming occurs real external consciousness brought consciousness The famous classical phenomenologists Husserl Heidegger Sartre Merleau Ponty thinkers conceptions phenomenology methods sketch differences capture crucial period history phenomenology sense diversity field phenomenology Logical Investigations 1900 Husserl outlined complex philosophy moving logic philosophy language ontology theory universals parts wholes phenomenological theory intentionality finally phenomenological theory knowledge Then Ideas 1913 focused squarely phenomenology Husserl defined phenomenology science essence consciousness centered defining trait intentionality approached explicitly person See Husserl Ideas 33ff spirit phenomenology study consciousness conscious experience types experienced person point view discipline study forms experience experience perspective subject living performing Thus characterize experiences hearing imagining thinking feeling emotion wishing desiring acting embodied volitional activities walking talking cooking carpentering However characterization experience Phenomenological analysis type experience feature ways experience form conscious activity And leading property familiar types experience intentionality consciousness experienced presented engaged How conceptualize understand object dealing defines meaning object current experience Thus phenomenology features study meaning wide sense includes expressed language Ideas Husserl presented phenomenology transcendental turn Husserl Kantian idiom transcendental idealism conditions possibility knowledge consciousness generally arguably turning reality phenomena But Husserl transcendental turn involved discovery method ofepoché Greek skeptics notion abstaining belief practice phenomenology Husserl proposed bracketing question existence natural turn attention reflection structure conscious experience Our key result observation consciousness consciousness intentional directed Consider visual experience tree square phenomenological reflection concern tree exists experience tree tree exists However concern object meant intended Eucalyptus tree Yucca tree object Eucalyptus shape bark stripping Thus bracketing tree turn attention experience tree content meaning experience This tree perceived Husserl calls noema noematic sense experience Philosophers succeeding Husserl debated proper characterization phenomenology arguing methods Adolf Reinach early student Husserl died World War argued phenomenology remain allied realist ontology Husserl Logical Investigations Roman Ingarden Polish phenomenologist generation continued resistance Husserl turn transcendental idealism For philosophers phenomenology bracket questions ontology method epoché And Martin Heidegger studied Husserl early writings worked Assistant Husserl 1916 1928 succeeded Husserl prestigious chair University Freiburg Heidegger ideas phenomenology Being Time 1927 Heidegger unfurled rendition phenomenology For Heidegger activities study activities bracketing interpret activities meaning contextual relations Indeed Heidegger phenomenology resolves called fundamental ontology distinguish beings investigation meaning case examining existence activity Dasein case Heidegger resisted Husserl neo Cartesian emphasis consciousness subjectivity including perception presents contrast Heidegger held basic ways relating practical activities hammering phenomenology reveals situation context equipment Being Time Heidegger approached phenomenology quasi poetic idiom root meanings logos phenomena phenomenology defined art practice letting Heidegger inimitable linguistic play Greek roots phenomenology See Heidegger Being Time 1927 Here Heidegger explicitly parodies Husserl phenomena Heidegger emphasize practical forms comportment relating Verhalten hammering nail opposed representational forms intentionality thinking hammer Much Being Time develops existential interpretation modes including famously death style clear analytical prose text lecture called The Basic Problems Phenomenology 1927 Heidegger traced question meaning Aristotle thinkers issues phenomenology Our understanding beings ultimately phenomenology Here connection classical issues ontology apparent consonant Husserl vision Logical Investigations early source inspiration Heidegger One Heidegger innovative ideas conception ground modes fundamental trees hammers Heidegger questioned contemporary concern technology writing scientific theories historical artifacts technological practice systems ideal truth Husserl held Our deep understanding case phenomenology Heidegger held 1930s phenomenology migrated Austrian German philosophy French philosophy The paved Marcel Proust Search Lost Time narrator recounts close vivid recollections experiences including famous associations smell freshly baked madeleines This sensibility experience traces Descartes work French phenomenology effort preserve central thrust Descartes insights rejecting mind body dualism The experience body lived living body motif French philosophers 20th century Nausea 1936 Jean Paul Sartre bizarre experience protagonist writing person describes ordinary objects lose meaning encounters pure foot chestnut tree moment recovers sense freedom Being Nothingness 1943 written partly prisoner war Sartre developed conception phenomenological ontology Consciousness consciousness objects Husserl stressed Sartre model intentionality central player consciousness phenomenon occurrence phenomenon consciousness object The chestnut tree Sartre phenomenon consciousness Indeed experience phenomena beneath lies Consciousness contrast consciousness consciousness object pre reflective consciousness conscience soi Yet Sartre Husserl sequence acts consciousness notably including radically free choices Humean bundle perceptions For Sartre practice phenomenology proceeds deliberate reflection structure consciousness Sartre method literary style interpretive description types experience relevant situations practice fit methodological proposals Husserl Heidegger Sartre great literary skill Sartre wrote plays novels awarded Nobel Prize Literature Sartre phenomenology Being Nothingness philosophical foundation popular philosophy existentialism sketched famous lecture Existentialism Humanism 1945 Being Nothingness Sartre emphasized experience freedom choice project choosing defining pattern actions Through vivid description Other Sartre laid groundwork contemporary political significance concept Other groups ethnicities Indeed The Second Sex 1949 Simone Beauvoir Sartre life long companion launched contemporary feminism nuanced account perceived role women Other 1940s Paris Maurice Merleau Ponty joined Sartre Beauvoir developing phenomenology Phenomenology Perception 1945 Merleau Ponty developed rich variety phenomenology emphasizing role body human experience Unlike Husserl Heidegger Sartre Merleau Ponty looked experimental psychology analyzing reported experience amputees felt sensations phantom limb Merleau Ponty rejected associationist psychology focused correlations sensation stimulus intellectualist psychology focused rational construction mind Think behaviorist computationalist models mind decades empirical psychology Instead Merleau Ponty focused body image experience body significance activities Extending Husserl account lived body opposed physical body Merleau Ponty resisted traditional Cartesian separation mind body For body image mental realm mechanical physical realm Rather body engaged action perceive including people The scope Phenomenology Perception characteristic breadth classical phenomenology Merleau Ponty drew generosity Husserl Heidegger Sartre fashioning innovative vision phenomenology His phenomenology addressed role attention phenomenal field experience body spatiality body motility body body sexual speech temporality character freedom French existentialism Near chapter cogito Descartes Merleau Ponty succinctly captures embodied existential form phenomenology writing Insofar reflect essence subjectivity bound body existence subjectivity consciousness existence body existence subject concretely inseparable body short consciousness embodied equally body infused consciousness cognition years Husserl Heidegger wrote phenomenologists dug classical issues including intentionality temporal awareness intersubjectivity practical intentionality social linguistic contexts human activity Interpretation historical texts Husserl played prominent role work texts rich difficult historical dimension practice continental European philosophy Since 1960s philosophers trained methods analytic philosophy dug foundations phenomenology eye 20th century work philosophy logic language mind Phenomenology linked logical semantic theory Husserl Logical Investigations Analytic phenomenology picks connection Dagfinn Føllesdal Mohanty explored historical conceptual relations Husserl phenomenology Frege logical semantics Frege Sense Reference 1892 For Frege expression refers object sense expressions morning star evening star refer object Venus express senses manners presentation For Husserl experience consciousness intends refers object noema noematic sense experiences refer object noematic senses involving ways presenting object object sides Indeed Husserl theory intentionality generalization theory linguistic reference linguistic reference mediated sense intentional reference mediated noematic sense More analytic philosophers mind rediscovered phenomenological issues mental representation intentionality consciousness sensory experience intentional content context thought Some analytic philosophers mind hark William James Franz Brentano origins modern psychology empirical today cognitive neuroscience Some researchers begun combine phenomenological issues issues neuroscience behavioral studies mathematical modeling Such studies extend methods traditional phenomenology Zeitgeist moves address philosophy mind Phenomenology Ontology Epistemology Logic EthicsThe discipline phenomenology forms basic field philosophy How phenomenology distinguished fields philosophy Traditionally philosophy includes core fields disciplines ontology epistemology ethics logic Suppose phenomenology joins list Consider elementary definitions field Ontology study beings Epistemology study knowledge Logic study valid reasoning reason Ethics study wrong Phenomenology study experience experience The domains study fields methods study Philosophers argued fields philosophy fundamental discipline philosophy knowledge wisdom rests Historically argued Socrates Plato ethics Aristotle metaphysics ontology Descartes epistemology Russell logic Husserl transcendental phase phenomenology Consider epistemology phenomenology helps define phenomena knowledge claims rest modern epistemology hand phenomenology claims achieve knowledge nature consciousness distinctive kind person knowledge form intuition Consider logic logical theory meaning led Husserl theory intentionality heart phenomenology account phenomenology explicates intentional semantic force ideal meanings propositional meanings central logical theory But logical structure expressed language ordinary language symbolic languages predicate logic mathematics systems remains issue debate language shapes specific forms experience thought perception emotion content meaning disputed relation phenomenology logico linguistic theory philosophical logic philosophy language opposed mathematical logic Consider ontology Phenomenology studies nature consciousness central issue metaphysics ontology leads traditional mind body problem Husserlian methodology bracket question existence surrounding separating phenomenology ontology Yet Husserl phenomenology presupposes theory species individuals universals particulars relations ideal meanings parts ontology Now ethics Phenomenology play role ethics offering analyses structure valuing happiness care empathy sympathy Historically ethics horizon phenomenology Husserl avoided ethics major works featured role practical concerns structure life Geist spirit culture Zeitgeist delivered lectures ethics logic basic place philosophy indicating phenomenology sympathy grounding ethics Being Time Heidegger claimed pursue ethics discussing phenomena ranging care conscience guilt fallenness authenticity phenomena theological echoes Being Nothingness Sartre analyzed subtlety logical problem bad faith developed ontology produced good faith sounds revised Kantian foundation morality Beauvoir sketched existentialist ethics Sartre left unpublished notebooks ethics However explicitly phenomenological approach ethics emerged works Emannuel Levinas Lithuanian phenomenologist heard Husserl Heidegger Freiburg moving Paris Totality Infinity 1961 modifying themes drawn Husserl Heidegger Levinas focused significance face explicitly developing grounds ethics range phenomenology writing impressionistic style prose allusions religious experience Allied ethics political social philosophy Sartre Merleau Ponty politically engaged 1940s Paris existential philosophies phenomenologically based political theory based individual freedom Sartre sought explicit blend existentialism Marxism Still political theory remained borders phenomenology Social theory closer phenomenology Husserl analyzed phenomenological structure life Geist generally including role social activity Heidegger stressed social practice primordial individual consciousness Alfred Schutz developed phenomenology social Sartre continued phenomenological appraisal meaning fundamental social formation Moving outward phenomenological issues Michel Foucault studied genesis meaning social institutions prisons insane asylums And Jacques Derrida long practiced kind phenomenology language seeking social meaning deconstruction wide ranging texts Aspects French poststructuralist theory interpreted broadly phenomenological issues purview Classical phenomenology ties areas epistemology logic ontology leads parts ethical social political theory Phenomenology Philosophy MindIt obvious phenomenology lot area called philosophy mind Yet traditions phenomenology analytic philosophy mind closely joined overlapping areas close survey phenomenology addressing philosophy mind vigorously debated areas philosophy The tradition analytic philosophy began early 20th century analyses language notably works Gottlob Frege Bertrand Russell Ludwig Wittgenstein Then The Concept Mind 1949 Gilbert Ryle developed series analyses language mental including sensation belief Though Ryle commonly deemed philosopher ordinary language Ryle The Concept Mind called phenomenology Ryle analyzed phenomenological understanding mental reflected ordinary language mind From linguistic phenomenology Ryle argued Cartesian mind body dualism involves category mistake logic grammar mental verbs ascribe belief sensation ghost machine With Ryle rejection mind body dualism mind body problem awakened ontology mind vis vis body mind body René Descartes epoch making Meditations First Philosophy 1641 argued minds bodies distinct kinds substance distinct kinds attributes modes bodies characterized spatiotemporal physical properties minds characterized properties thinking including feeling Centuries phenomenology Brentano Husserl mental acts characterized consciousness intentionality natural science physical systems characterized mass force ultimately gravitational electromagnetic quantum fields Where consciousness intentionality quantum electromagnetic gravitational field hypothesis orders natural humans minds exist That mind body problem today short phenomenology lies heart contemporary mind body problem After Ryle philosophers sought explicit generally naturalistic ontology mind 1950s materialism argued anew urging mental identical central nervous The classical identity theory holds token mental person mind time identical token brain person brain time stronger materialism holds type mental identical type brain But materialism fit comfortably phenomenology For obvious conscious mental experience sensations thoughts emotions simply complex neural subserve implement mental neural simply identical token type scientific theory mind phenomenology occur simply replaced neuroscience And experience explained neuroscience late 1960s 1970s model mind set functionalism dominant model mind model mind brain consists electrochemical transactions neurons vast complexes Instead mind brains function mediating coming organism behavior proceeding organism Thus mental functional brain human animal organism More favorite variation functionalism mind computing mind brain software hardware thoughts programs running brain wetware Since 1970s cognitive sciences experimental studies cognition neuroscience tended mix materialism functionalism Gradually philosophers phenomenological aspects mind pose problems functionalist paradigm early 1970s Thomas Nagel argued What Like Bat 1974 consciousness subjective character type experience escapes physical theory Many philosophers pressed case sensory qualia feel pain red addressed explained physical account brain structure brain function Consciousness properties And closely tied brain And level description neural activities implement computation 1980s John Searle argued Intentionality 1983 The Rediscovery Mind 1991 intentionality consciousness essential properties mental For Searle brains produce mental properties consciousness intentionality biology consciousness intentionality require person ontology Searle argued computers simulate mental characterized intentionality Searle argued syntax processing symbols shapes semantics symbols lack meaning interpret symbols Searle rejected materialism functionalism insisting mind biological property organisms brains secrete consciousness The analysis consciousness intentionality central phenomenology appraised Searle theory intentionality reads modernized version Husserl Contemporary logical theory takes form stating truth conditions propositions Searle characterizes mental intentionality satisfaction conditions However difference background theory For Searle explicitly assumes basic worldview natural science holding consciousness nature But Husserl explicitly brackets assumption phenomenologists including Heidegger Sartre Merleau Ponty seek sanctuary phenomenology natural sciences And phenomenology neutral theories experience arises notably brain activity Since late 1980s late 1990s variety writers working philosophy mind focused fundamental character consciousness ultimately phenomenological issue Does consciousness essentially involve consciousness consciousness consciousness Brentano Husserl Sartre held varying consciousness includes adjoined consciousness consciousness Does consciousness form internal monitoring monitoring higher order consciousness joined mental monitoring base monitoring order base proper conscious variety models consciousness developed explicitly drawing adapting views Brentano Husserl Sartre Two collections address issues David Woodruff Smith Amie Thomasson editors Phenomenology Philosophy Mind 2005 Uriah Kriegel Kenneth Williford editors Self Representational Approaches Consciousness 2006 The philosophy mind factored disciplines ranges theory relevant mind Phenomenology studies conscious experience experienced analyzing structure types intentional forms meanings dynamics enabling conditions perception thought imagination emotion volition action Neuroscience studies neural activities serve biological substrate types mental activity including conscious experience Neuroscience framed evolutionary biology explaining neural phenomena evolved ultimately basic physics explaining biological phenomena grounded physical phenomena Here lie intricacies natural sciences Part sciences accountable structure experience analyzed phenomenology Cultural analysis studies social practices shape serve cultural substrate types mental activity including conscious experience typically manifest embodied action Here study import language social practices including background attitudes assumptions involving political systems Ontology mind studies ontological type mental activity general ranging perception involves causal input environment experience volitional action involves causal output volition bodily movement This division labor theory mind extension Brentano original distinction descriptive genetic psychology Phenomenology offers descriptive analyses mental phenomena neuroscience wider biology ultimately physics offers models explanation rise mental phenomena Cultural theory offers analyses social activities impact experience including ways language shapes thought emotion motivation And ontology frames basic scheme structure including minds The ontological distinction form appearance substrate activity consciousness detailed Smith Mind World 2004 essay Three Facets Consciousness Meanwhile epistemological standpoint ranges theory mind observe reason seek explain phenomena encounter And phenomenology Moreover understand piece theory including theory mind central theory intentionality semantics thought experience general And heart phenomenology Phenomenology Contemporary Consciousness TheoryPhenomenological issues played prominent role philosophy mind Amplifying theme previous note issues form awareness ostensibly mental activity conscious phenomenal character conscious cognitive mental activity thought perception action Ever Nagel 1974 article What Like Bat notion experience mental activity posed challenge reductive materialism functionalism theory mind This subjective phenomenal character consciousness held constitutive definitive consciousness What form phenomenal character consciousness prominent analysis holds phenomenal character mental activity consists form awareness activity awareness definition renders conscious Since 1980s variety models awareness developed models define awareness higher order monitoring perception activity form sense Kant consciousness Brentano thought activity model analyzes awareness integral experience form representation experience Again Kriegel Williford eds 2006 model arguably closer form consciousness sought Brentano Husserl Sartre modal model awareness experience takes form integral reflexive awareness experience That form awareness held constitutive element experience renders conscious Sartre claim consciousness constitutive consciousness consciousness pre reflective This reflexive awareness separable higher order monitoring built consciousness modal model awareness experience unfolds subjectively phenomenally consciously This model elaborated Smith 2004 Mind World essay Return Consciousness Whatever precise form phenomenal character character distributes mental life What phenomenal types mental activity Here issues cognitive phenomenology phenomenality restricted feel sensory experience phenomenality cognitive experiences thinking perception bearing conceptual sensory content volitional conative bodily action These issues explored Bayne Montague eds 2011 Cognitive Phenomenology restrictive view holds sensory experience proper phenomenal character Seeing color hearing tone smelling odor feeling pain types conscious experience phenomenal character view stringent empiricism limit phenomenal experience pure sensations Hume recognized phenomenal ideas pure sense impressions expansive view hold perceptual experience distinctive phenomenal character sensation informed concepts Seeing yellow canary hearing clear Middle Steinway piano smelling sharp odor anise feeling pain jab doctor needle receiving injection types conscious experience character character informed conceptual content felt view Kantian account conceptual sensory experience intuition endorse phenomenal character types experience Indeed phenomena Kantian idiom precisely consciousness appearance phenomenal character Now expansive view hold conscious experience distinctive phenomenal character Thinking prime number thinking red sunset caused sun light waves bent atmosphere thinking Kant Hume grounds knowledge thinking economic principles political highly cognitive activities character expansive view Classical phenomenologists Husserl Merleau Ponty surely assumed expansive view phenomenal consciousness phenomena focus phenomenology assumed rich character lived experience Even Heidegger emphasizing consciousness Cartesian sin dwelt phenomena appears Dasein everyday activities hammering nail Like Merleau Ponty Gurwitsch 1964 explicitly studies phenomenal field embracing presented experience Arguably thinkers type conscious experience distinctive phenomenal character phenomenology task phenomenology discipline analyze character Note debates phenomenal character experience called phenomenology established idiom term phenomenology names discipline studies phenomenology Since intentionality crucial property consciousness Brentano Husserl character intentionality count phenomenal experience type intentional experience But intentional perception thought distinctive phenomenal characters Embodied action distinctive phenomenal character involving lived characters kinesthetic sensation conceptual volitional content feel kicking soccer ball The lived body precisely body experienced everyday embodied volitional action running kicking ball speaking Husserl wrote length lived body Leib Ideas Merleau Ponty suit rich analyses embodied perception action Phenomenology Perception Bayne Montague eds 2011 article conative phenomenology Terence Horgan Smith Thomasson eds 2005 articles Charles Siewert Sean Kelly But problems remains Intentionality essentially involves meaning question arises meaning appears phenomenal character Importantly content conscious experience typically carries horizon background meaning meaning implicit explicit experience But wide range content carried experience consciously felt phenomenal character argued Here phenomenological theory day The intellectual roots phenomenologyIn pursuit critical understanding nature human existence philosophy covers domains including logic semantics epistemology ontology ethics Phenomenology branch philosophy interested study structure consciousness experience meaning process entails understanding reasoning language knowing values Phenomenology divided main traditions seeks set bracket preconceived notions order people everyday experiences Edmund Husserl descriptive tradition seeks description core concepts phenomenon order interpret Martin Heidegger hermeneutic tradition discipline method philosophical enquiry descriptive phenomenology turn twentieth century publication volume work Logical Investigations Husserl Moran Findlay 2001a Husserl Moran Findlay 2001b German mathematician turned philosopher Edmund Husserl 1859 1938 Other influential work including Husserl volume formulations phenomenology Ideas Pertaining Pure Phenomenology Phenomenological Philosophy Husserl Kersten 1998 study temporality consciousness Phenomenology Consciousness Internal Time Husserl Brough 1991 unfinished exposition historicity consciousness The Crisis European Sciences Transcendental Phenomenology Husserl 1970 heart phenomenology interested structure content consciousness experience person perspective broader scale phenomenology seeks integrated account acts consciousness experiences include thinking feeling social interaction nature objects consciousness attuned language express thoughts larger culture form Smith 2013a phenomenology interested studying experience objects phenomena acts consciousness objects disclosed Detmer 2013 pursuit objective Husserl phenomenology called descriptive theoretical enterprise aimed clarification explanation form eidetic factual enquiry focused entities experience entities Crowell 2006 The Logical Investigations product Husserl bringing philosophical definition pure mathematics including account rational essence Husserl Moran Findlay 2001a Although logic tool supposed elucidate understanding Husserl current range boundaries unequal task Husserl Moran Findlay 2001a Accordingly Husserl stepped began studying basic questions epistemology logic conditions logic acts theory method science process Husserl studied acts knowing constituted science ontology scientific object Thus Husserl early philosophical treatise explored properties effects including objective truth attendant cognitive acts objects logical scientific enquiry Husserl rejected dominant philosophical position psychologism essential theoretical foundations logic understood based psychology approach logical laws viewed phenomena mind grounded explained validated natural psychological laws laws feel Husserl declared psychology empirically based methods solutions answered philosophical questions incompatible universal priori exact nature logical principles truths issue psychological view nature objects origin consciousness Husserl disagreed view objects constitutive contained consciousness connection consciousness objects causality Instead Husserl believed objects degree objectivity independence thought existing consciousness existing thought consciousness existing phenomena objects focus attended consciousness meaning Detmer 2013 Smith puts phenomenology posits consciousness meaning existence 2013a discipline method inquiry phenomenology concerned naturalizing consciousness exploring nature judgements perceptions memories actions emotions essence conscious experiences Moran 2000 Detmer 2013 Above phenomenology understands consciousness cognitive mental acts intentional Logical Investigations Investigation Ideas generally property feature attuned reaching object thought generally thought From phenomenological perspective intentional objects genuinely encountered experience material immaterial Detmer 2013 Consequently core consciousness aware meaning objects Moreover objects understood existence independent consciousness meaning understood independent object directed acts consciousness meaning revealed Moran 2000 Detmer 2013 The central structure experience intentionality directed content meaning object Smith 2013b examining nature experience intentionality Husserl distinguished components consciousness event person mind stream experiences meaning providing content ideal meaning precept features sense object attuned exists independently object Husserl called noema object individual events affairs Smith 2013a intentionally directed object content sense experience directed objects meanings represent objects Smith 2013a relationship meaning mental acts objects relationship correspondence dependence causality intentionality hinges object external conscious represents person conception object represented structure person subjective experience McIntyre Smith 1989 Investigation Ideas For Husserl content mental understood terms quality feature speaks type perception emotion matter feature content speaks object represents manner issue intentionality McIntyre Smith 1989 The structure content divided noema appearance object experienced noesis manner experienced consciousness directed object The content divided real content sum parts individual matter quality noesis forms intentional ideal content abstract structure sense repeatable sharable multiple conscious acts noema forms McIntyre Smith 1989 Føllesdal 2006 The ideal content quality constancy repeatability stable process experiences Thus terms object types phenomenology decrees real object located space time existing fact concrete instantiated individual pieces object experienced noema Phenomenology decrees ideal object species type universal essence referred ideal species Logical Investigations essence eidos Ideas fact phenomenon presents presents essence Dahlberg 2006 Objects experienced meaning essences knowing essence place intuition This notion intuition posits essence object provisional derived careful observation instances Instead understanding essence originary understood encountered naturally instantly intuitively According Husserl work temporal nature consciousness Husserl Brough 1991 people experience objects entirety process perception Instead objects partially experienced spatial temporal perspective Phenomenology reasons perceiving object eye incapable Yet eidetic reduction form background knowledge beliefs gaps people capable objects sense fully formed The fact perception temporally structured objects unfold consciousness experience perceptual process appears seamless objects coherent static Detmer 2013 This sense coherence consciousness access horizon experienced time primal presentation extended retention future anticipation extended protention Phenomenology Experience ZodiacPage