Positive psychology is the “science research on what makes life most worth living,” and the “science research, which includes biological, social, social, organizational, cultural and the worldwide aspects of existence, of beneficial human function and thriving.” Positive science focuses on eudaimonia,’ excellent life,’ reflecting upon what takes the biggest significance in existence–the things that make the most of existence.
The fresh field of psychology started in 1998, when Martin Seligman decided to take it as the subject for his tenure as chairman of the American Psychological Association. This design is considered asbeing co-initiatedby Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Christopher Peterson and Barbara Fredrickson. It is a psychoanalytic and behavioral response that focuses on “mental disease,” while emphasizing mental disease and adverse thinking. It develops further on the humanist movement, which fostered the emphasis on happiness, prosperity and positivity and thus laid the foundations of so-called positive psychology.Positive Psychology Positive psychology science life worth living science includes biological social social organizational cultural worldwide aspects existence beneficial human function thriving Positive science focuses eudaimonia excellent life reflecting takes biggest significance existence existence The fresh field psychology started 1998 Martin Seligman decided subject tenure chairman American Psychological Association This design considered asbeing initiatedby Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Christopher Peterson Barbara Fredrickson psychoanalytic behavioral response focuses mental disease emphasizing mental disease adverse thinking develops humanist movement fostered emphasis happiness prosperity positivity laid foundations called positive psychology Positive psychology scientific study life worth living scientific study positive human functioning flourishing multiple levels include biological personal relational institutional cultural global dimensions life Positive psychology concerned eudaimonia good life reflection holds greatest life factors contribute lived fulfilling life Positive psychology began domain psychology 1998 Martin Seligman chose theme term president American Psychological Association Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Christopher Peterson Barbara Fredrickson regarded initiators development reaction psychoanalysis behaviorism focused mental illness emphasising maladaptive behavior negative thinking builds humanistic movement encouraged emphasis happiness positivity creating foundation positive psychology Positive psychologists suggested number ways individual happiness fostered Social ties spouse family friends wider networks work clubs social organisations physical exercise practice meditation contribute happiness Happiness rise increasing financial income plateau fall gains DefinitionSeligman Csikszentmihalyi define positive psychology scientific study positive human functioning flourishing multiple levels include biological personal relational institutional cultural global dimensions life Christopher Peterson defines positive psychology scientific study life worth living Basic conceptsPositive psychology concerned eudaimonia good life flourishing living holds greatest life factors contribute lived fulfilling life While attempting strict definition good life positive psychologists agree live happy engaged meaningful life order experience good life Martin Seligman referred good life signature strengths day produce authentic happiness abundant gratification According Christopher Peterson eudaimonia trumps hedonism Positive psychology complements intending replace ignore traditional areas psychology emphasizing study positive human development field helps balance approaches focus disorder produce limited understanding Positive psychology emphasis fostering positive esteem image positive psychologists humanist bent focus intently matter The basic premise positive psychology human beings drawn future driven change orientation time dramatically affect nature happiness Seligman identified goals families schools children grow workplaces aim satisfaction high productivity teaching positive psychology Those practice positive psychology attempt psychological interventions foster positive attitudes subjective experiences individual traits life events The goal minimize pathological thoughts hopeless mindset develop sense optimism life Positive psychologists seek encourage acceptance excitement optimism future experiences sense contentment Related concepts happiness quality life contentment meaningful life Research topicsAccording Seligman Peterson positive psychology concerned issues positive emotions positive individual traits positive institutions Positive emotions concerned content happy hope future Positive individual traits focus strengths virtues Finally positive institutions based strengths community people According Peterson positive psychologists concerned topics positive experiences enduring psychological traits positive relationships positive institutions According Peterson topics researchers field pleasure flow values strengths virtues talents ways promoted social systems institutions OriginThe term positive psychology dates 1954 Maslow edition Motivation personality published final chapter titled Toward Positive Psychology edition 1970 removed chapter preface positive psychology today There indications psychologists 1950s increasingly focused promotion mental health treating mental illness From psychology field addressed human experience Disease Model studying identifying dysfunction individual Positive psychology began area psychology 1998 Martin Seligman chose theme term president American Psychological Association sentence book Authentic Happiness Seligman claimed century psychology consumed single topic mental illness expanding Maslow comments urged psychologists continue earlier missions psychology nurturing talent improving normal life DevelopmentThe positive psychology summit place 1999 The First International Conference Positive Psychology place 2002 More attention general public 2006 framework Harvard University popular June 2009 First World Congress Positive Psychology place University Pennsylvania The International Positive Psychology Association IPPA established association expanded thousands members countries The IPPA missions include science positive psychology globe ensure field continues rest science work effective responsible application positive psychology diverse areas organizational psychology counselling clinical psychology business health education coaching foster education training field The field positive psychology today advanced United States Western Europe Even positive psychology offers approach study positive emotions behavior ideas theories motivation study positive human behavior humanity InfluencesSeveral humanistic psychologists notably Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers Erich Fromm developed theories practices pertaining human happiness flourishing More positive psychologists empirical support humanistic theories flourishing addition positive psychology moved variety directions 1984 Diener published tripartite model subjective positing distinct components wellbeing frequent positive affect infrequent negative affect cognitive evaluations life satisfaction model cognitive affective contextual factors contribute subjective According Diener Suh subjective based idea person thinks feels life Carol Ryff Six factor Model Psychological Well initially published 1989 additional testing factors published 1995 postulates factors key acceptance personal growth purpose life environmental mastery autonomy positive relations According Corey Keyes collaborated Carol Ryff term flourishing central concept mental components hedonic subjective emotional psychological social Hedonic concerns emotional aspects psychological social eudaimonic concerns skills abilities optimal functioning This tripartite model mental received extensive empirical support cultures Theory methodsThere accepted gold standard theory positive psychology work Seligman regularly quoted work Csikszentmihalyi older models Carol Ryff Six factor Model Psychological Well Diener tripartite model subjective Initial theory paths happinessIn Authentic Happiness 2002 Seligman proposed kinds happy life investigated Pleasant life Pleasant Life life enjoyment examines people optimally experience forecast savor positive feelings emotions normal healthy living relationships hobbies interests entertainment Despite attention Martin Seligman transient element happiness Good Life investigation beneficial effects immersion absorption flow felt individuals optimally engaged primary activities study Good Life life engagement Flow experienced positive match person strength current task feels confident accomplishing chosen assigned task Meaningful Life inquiry Meaningful Life life affiliation questions individuals derive positive sense belonging meaning purpose contributing larger permanent nature social groups organizations movements traditions belief systems PERMAIn Flourish 2011 Seligman argued category proposed kinds happy life meaningful life considered categories The acronym PERMA Positive Emotions Engagement Relationships Meaning purpose Accomplishments mnemonic elements Martin Seligman theory Positive emotions include wide range feelings happiness joy Included emotions excitement satisfaction pride awe These emotions frequently connected positive outcomes longer life healthier social relationships Engagement refers involvement activities draws builds interests Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi explains true engagement flow deep effortless involvement feeling intensity leads sense ecstasy clarity The task higher skill bit difficult challenging Engagement involves passion concentration task hand assessed subjectively person engaged completely absorbed losing consciousness Relationships essential fueling positive emotions work familial romantic platonic Christopher Peterson puts simply Other people matter Humans receive share spread positivity relationships They bad times good times fact relationships strengthened reacting positively typical positive place presence people Meaning purpose prompts question Discovering figuring clear puts context work relationships parts life Finding meaning learning greater Despite potential challenges working meaning drives people continue striving desirable goal Accomplishments pursuit success mastery Unlike parts PERMA pursued accomplishments result positive emotions meaning relationships That accomplishments activate elements PERMA pride positive emotion Accomplishments individual community based fun work based Each PERMA elements selected criteria contributes pursued sake defined measured independently elements Character Strengths VirtuesThe development Character Strengths Virtues CSV handbook 2004 represented attempt Seligman Peterson identify classify positive psychological traits human beings Much Diagnostic Statistical Manual Mental Disorders DSM general psychology CSV theoretical framework assist understanding strengths virtues developing practical applications positive psychology This manual identified classes virtues core virtues underlying measurable character strengths The CSV suggested virtues historical basis vast majority cultures addition virtues strengths lead increased happiness built Notwithstanding numerous cautions caveats suggestion universality hints threefold The study positive human qualities broadens scope psychological include mental wellness leaders positive psychology movement challenging moral relativism suggesting people evolutionarily predisposed virtues virtue biological basis The organization virtues strengths Wisdom knowledge creativity curiosity open mindedness love learning perspective innovationCourage bravery persistence integrity vitality zestHumanity love kindness social intelligenceJustice citizenship fairness leadershipTemperance forgiveness mercy humility prudence controlTranscendence appreciation beauty excellence gratitude hope humor spiritualityRecent challenged virtues Instead researchers suggested strengths accurately grouped categories Intellectual Strengths Interpersonal Strengths Temperance Strengths alternatively Interpersonal Strengths Fortitude Vitality Cautiousness These strengths classifications emerged independently literature values Paul Thagard examples included Jeff Shrager workshops discover habits highly creative people Some effects spirituality virtue FlowIn 1970s Csikszentmihalyi began studying flow absorption abilities matched demands hand Flow characterized intense concentration loss awareness feeling perfectly challenged bored overwhelmed sense time flying Flow intrinsically rewarding assist achievement goals winning game improving skills chess player Anyone experience flow domains play creativity work Flow achieved challenge situation meets personal abilities mismatch challenge skills anxiety insufficient challenge highly skilled boredom Applications findingsResearch positive psychology eudaimonia happiness theories Diener Ryff Keyes Seligman cover broad range topics including biological personal relational institutional cultural global dimensions life meta analysis studies 2009 Positive Psychology Interventions PPI produced improvements depression levels PPIs studied included writing gratitude letters learning optimistic thinking replaying positive life experiences socializing meta analysis studies participants 2012 outcomes positive Three months PPI effects subjective psychological However positive weaker 2009 meta analysis authors concluded higher quality studies The PPIs considered included counting blessings kindness practices making personal goals showing gratitude focusing personal strengths Ilona Boniwell book Positive Psychology Nutshell summary current Wellbeing optimism extraversion social connections close friendships married engaging work religion spirituality leisure good sleep exercise social class lifestyle differences coping methods subjective health health Wellbeing age physical attractiveness money basic met gender women depressed joyful educational level children add meaning life moving sunnier climate crime prevention housing objective health doctors Sonja Lyubomirsky book The How Happiness improve happiness individuals create habits seek emotions variety timing prevent hedonic adaptation enlist motivate support creation habits Lyubomirsky happiness activities savouring life learning forgive living basis habit Positive Psychology The Science Happiness authors Compton Hoffman Top Down Predictors wellbeing high esteem optimism efficacy sense meaning life positive relationships The personality traits extraversion agreeability levels neuroticism Journal Occupational Rehabilitation Kreutzer Mills argue principles positive psychology implemented assist recovering traumatic brain injury TBR They case TBI rehabilitation practices rely betterment individual engaging everyday practices practice tenets positive psychology Their proposal connect positive psychology TBI vocational rehabilitation happiness correlation improvements mental health including increased confidence productivity While authors point empirical evidence positive psychology limited clarify positive psychology focus small successes optimism prosocial behaviour promising improvements social emotional TBI patients Positive Psychology ZodiacPage