Social Psychology

Social Psychology is a scientific study into how the real, perceived or implied existence of others affects people’s thoughts, sentiments and behaviours. Scientific references in this definition to empirical research by scientific technique. The terms “thought,” “feeling,” and “conduct” refers to human psychological variables. The assertion that others ‘ existence is imaginable or implicit suggests that even when people are alone, people can be malevolent to social influences, for example by viewing TV, viewing real-world displays, musical videos, and films.

Social psychologists examine variables which in the presence of others produce habits in a certain manner. They investigate the circumstances under which certain behaviours, activities and emotions take place. Social psychology deals with the cognitive construction of these sentiments, ideas, opinions, motives and objectives and, in turn, how such intellectual depictions affect our relationships with others. The gap between psychology and sociology has traditionally been filled in social psychology. There was frequent cooperation between psychologists and sociologists during the years immediately following World War II.

Social Psychology Social Psychology scientific study real perceived implied existence people thoughts sentiments behaviours Scientific references definition empirical scientific technique The terms thought feeling conduct refers human psychological variables The assertion existence imaginable implicit suggests people people malevolent social influences viewing viewing real displays musical videos films Social psychologists examine variables presence produce habits manner They investigate circumstances behaviours activities emotions place Social psychology deals cognitive construction sentiments ideas opinions motives objectives turn intellectual depictions affect relationships The gap psychology sociology traditionally filled social psychology There frequent cooperation psychologists sociologists years World War Social psychology scientific study people thoughts feelings behaviors influenced actual imagined implied presence definition scientific refers empirical investigation scientific method The terms thoughts feelings behavior refer psychological variables measured humans The statement presence imagined implied suggests humans malleable social influences watching television reality music videos movies influenced follow behaviour visual setting internalized cultural norms Social psychologists typically explain human behavior result interaction mental social situations Social psychologists examine factors behaviors unfold presence They study conditions behavior actions feelings occur Social psychology concerned feelings thoughts beliefs intentions goals cognitively constructed mental representations turn influence interactions Social psychology traditionally bridged gap psychology sociology During years World War frequent collaboration psychologists sociologists The disciplines increasingly specialized isolated years sociologists focusing macro variables social structure greater extent psychologists Nevertheless sociological approaches psychology remain counterpart psychological area addition split psychology sociology pronounced difference emphasis American social psychologists European social psychologists generalization American researchers traditionally focused individual Europeans paid attention group level phenomena group dynamics Although older writings social psychology Islamic philosopher Farabi Alpharabius discipline social psychology modern day definition began United States 20th century time discipline developed foundation Following 18th century emerging field social psychology concerned developing concrete explanations aspects human nature They attempted discover concrete relationships explained social interactions order believed scientific method empirically based scientific measure applied human behavior The published study area experiment 1898 Norman Triplett phenomenon social facilitation During 1930s Gestalt psychologists notably Kurt Lewin fled United States Nazi Germany They instrumental developing field separate behavioral psychoanalytic schools dominant time social psychology maintained legacy interests perception cognition Attitudes small group phenomena commonly studied topics era During World War social psychologists studied persuasion propaganda military After war researchers interested variety social problems including gender issues racial prejudice Most notable revealing contentious Stanley Milgram shock experiments obedience authority sixties growing topics cognitive dissonance bystander intervention aggression 1970s social psychology America reached crisis There heated debate ethics laboratory experimentation attitudes predicted behavior science cultural context This time radical situationist approach challenged relevance personality psychology Throughout 1980s 1990s social psychology reached mature level Two areas social psychology matured theories methods Careful ethical standards regulate Pluralistic multicultural perspectives emerged Modern researchers interested phenomena attribution social cognition concept greatest areas growth years citation needed Social psychologists maintained applied interests contributions social psychology health education law workplace AttitudesIn social psychology attitudes defined learned global evaluations person object place issue influence thought action Put simply attitudes basic expressions approval disapproval favorability unfavorability Bem likes dislikes Examples include liking chocolate ice cream endorsing values political party Social psychologists studied attitude formation structure attitudes attitude change function attitudes relationship attitudes behavior Because people influenced situation general attitudes good predictors specific behavior For variety reasons person environment recycle day times attitudes examined distinction traditional reported attitude measures implicit unconscious attitudes For experiments Implicit Association Test people demonstrate implicit bias races explicit responses reveal equal mindedness One study explicit attitudes correlate verbal behavior interracial interactions implicit attitudes correlate nonverbal behavior One hypothesis attitudes formed advanced Abraham Tesser 1983 strong likes dislikes ingrained genetic Tesser speculates individuals disposed hold strong attitudes result inborn physical sensory cognitive skills temperament personality traits Whatever disposition nature elects treasured attitudes formed result exposure attitude objects history rewards punishments attitude parents friends enemies express social cultural context live types experiences Obviously attitudes formed basic process learning Numerous studies people form strong positive negative attitudes neutral objects linked emotionally charged stimuli Attitudes involved areas discipline conformity interpersonal attraction social perception prejudice PersuasionThe topic persuasion received great deal attention years Persuasion active method influence attempts guide people adoption attitude idea behavior rational emotive Persuasion relies appeals strong pressure coercion Numerous variables influence persuasion process presented major categories The Communicator including credibility expertise trustworthiness attractiveness The Message including varying degrees reason emotion fear sided sided arguments types informational content The Audience including variety demographics personality traits preferences The Channel Medium including printed word radio television internet face face interactions The Context including environment group dynamics preamble message Dual process theories persuasion elaboration likelihood model maintain persuasive process mediated separate routes central peripheral The central route persuasion fact based longer lasting change requires motivation process The peripheral route superficial shorter lasting change require motivation process peripheral route persuasion politician flag lapel pin smiling wearing crisp clean shirt Notice require motivation persuasive long persuasion based central route politician outline believed previous voting record central route result longer lasting change require good deal motivation process Social cognitionSocial cognition growing area social psychology studies people perceive remember Much rests assertion people people differently social targets This assertion supported social cognitive deficits exhibited people Williams syndrome autism Person perception study people form impressions The study people form beliefs interacting interpersonal perception major topic social cognition attribution Attributions explanations people behavior behavior behavior One element attribution ascribes locus behavior internal external factors internal dispositional attribution assigns behavior traits personality disposition character ability external situational attribution involves situational elements weather element attribution ascribes behavior stable unstable factors behavior repeated changed circumstances Finally attribute behavior controllable uncontrollable factors control situation hand Numerous biases attribution process discovered For instance fundamental attribution error tendency dispositional attributions behavior overestimating influence personality underestimating influence situations The actor observer difference refinement bias tendency dispositional attributions people behavior situational attributions The serving bias tendency attribute dispositional successes situational failure esteem threatened This leads assuming successes innate traits failures situations including people Other ways people protect esteem believing blaming victims suffering making defensive attributions explain behavior ways defend feelings vulnerability mortality Researchers mildly depressed individuals lack bias realistic perceptions reality measured opinions Heuristics cognitive short cuts Instead weighing evidence making decision people rely heuristics save time energy The availability heuristic occurs people estimate probability outcome based easy outcome imagine vivid highly memorable possibilities perceived harder picture difficult understand cognitive bias The representativeness heuristic shortcut people categorize based prototype Numerous biases social cognition researchers The hindsight bias false memory predicted events exaggeration actual predictions aware outcome The confirmation bias type bias leading tendency search interpret confirms preconceptions Another key concept social cognition assumption reality complex easily discern result tend simplified schemas images reality Schemas generalized mental representations organize knowledge guide processing Schemas operate automatically unintentionally lead biases perception memory Expectations schemas lead One experiment people misperceive weapon hands black man white man This type schema stereotype generalized set beliefs group people incorrect ultimate attribution error Stereotypes negative preferential attitudes prejudice behavior discrimination Schemas behaviors restaurant laundry scripts Self conceptSelf concept term referring sum beliefs people However concept consist According Hazel Markus 1977 concept cognitive molecules called schemas beliefs people guide processing reliant For athlete university multiple process pertinent student process pertinent student notes class completing homework assignment athlete processes athlete recognizing incoming pass aiming shot These identity reliant relies proper process react identity difficult react For civilian handle hostile threat trained Marine The Marine enable process hostile threat react civilian disabling properly processing hostile threat debilitating acting Self schemas individual total concept hypothesis theory book library good body weight schema people regard underweight body image concept aspect considered schematics respect weight For people range mundane events grocery shopping clothes eating beach trigger thoughts contrast people regard weight lives schematic attribute clear special object attention Whether mentally focused memory conversation foul smell song stuck head sentence consciousness spotlight This spotlight shine object time switch rapidly object process awareness spotlight center relating spotlight The ABCs affect behavior cognition affective emotional question How people evaluate enhance image maintain secure sense identity behavioral question How people regulate actions interpersonal demands cognitive question How individuals build concept uphold stable sense identity Affective forecasting process predicting feel response future emotional events Studies Timothy Wilson Daniel Gilbert 2003 people overestimate strength reaction anticipated positive negative life events feel event occur There theories perception behavior Daryl Bem 1972 perception theory claims internal cues difficult interpret people gain insight observing behavior Leon Festinger 1954 social comparison theoryis people evaluate abilities opinions comparing uncertain ability opinions There facial feedback hypothesis facial expression lead emotion The fields social psychology personality merged years social psychologists developed phenomena contrast traditional personality theory social psychologists place greater emphasis cognitions traits Much focuses concept person understanding The concept divided cognitive component schema evaluative component esteem The maintain healthy esteem recognized central human motivation field social psychology Self efficacy beliefs schema These expectations performance task effective successful Social psychologists study processes control presentation People develop concepts varied including introspection feedback perception social comparison comparing relevant people gain inferences relevant esteem Social comparisons upward downward comparisons people higher status ability status ability Downward comparisons order elevate esteem Self perception specialized form attribution involves making inferences oneself observing behavior Psychologists extrinsic rewards money tend reduce intrinsic motivation perception process phenomenon overjustification People attention directed reward lose task reward longer offered This exception reinforcement theory Social influenceSocial influence overarching term persuasive effects people fundamental social psychology overlaps considerably attitudes persuasion The main areas social influence include conformity compliance obedience Social influence closely study group dynamics principles influence strongest place social groups The major area social influence conformity Conformity defined tendency members group The identity members group status similarity expertise cohesion prior commitment accountability group determine level conformity individual Individual variation group members plays key role dynamic people conform Conformity viewed negative tendency American culture conformity adaptive situations nonconformity situations Group dynamicsA group defined individuals connected social relationships Groups tend interact influence share common identity They number emergent qualities distinguish aggregates Norms Implicit rules expectations group members follow shaking hands Roles Implicit rules expectations specific members group oldest sibling additional responsibilities family Relations Patterns liking group differences prestige status leaders popular people Temporary groups aggregates share features qualify true social groups People waiting bus constitute group Groups offer social support resources feeling belonging supplement individual concept large extent humans define group memberships form social identity The shared social identity individuals group influences intergroup behavior groups behave perceive These perceptions behaviors turn define social identity individuals interacting groups The tendency define oneself membership group lead intergroup discrimination involves favorable perceptions behaviors directed group negative perceptions behaviors directed group hand discrimination segregation exist partly facilitate diversity strengthens society Intergroup discrimination leads prejudice stereotyping processes social facilitation group polarization encourage extreme behaviors group Groups moderate improve decision making frequently relied benefits committees juries number group biases interfere effective decision making For group polarization risky shift occurs people polarize views extreme direction group discussion More problematic phenomenon groupthink This collective thinking defect characterized premature consensus incorrect assumption consensus caused members group failing promote views consistent views members Groupthink occurs variety situations including isolation group presence highly directive leader Janis offered 1961 Bay Pigs Invasion historical case groupthink Groups affect performance productivity Social facilitation tendency work harder faster presence Social facilitation increases dominant response likelihood improve performance simple tasks reduce complex tasks contrast social loafing tendency individuals slack working group Social loafing common task considered unimportant individual contributions easy Social psychologists study group collective phenomena behavior crowds concept area deindividuation reduced awareness caused feelings anonymity Deindividuation uninhibited dangerous behavior common crowds mobs caused disguise uniform alcohol dark environments online anonymity Social psychologists study interactions groups groups individuals Interpersonal attractionA major area study people relations interpersonal attraction This refers forces lead people establish relationships cases fall love Several general principles attraction discovered social psychologists continue experiment One factors interpersonal attraction people The people general attitudes backgrounds environments worldviews traits probable attraction Physical attractiveness element romantic relationships early stages characterized high levels passion Later similarity compatibility factors type love people experience shifts passionate companionate Robert Sternberg suggested components love intimacy passion commitment When people experience consummate love According social exchange theory relationships based rational choice cost benefit analysis partner costs outweigh benefits person leave relationship good alternatives This theory minimax principle proposed mathematicians economists fact human relationships sum games With time long term relationships tend communal simply based exchange Social Psychology ZodiacPage

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